Use the download button to download the printable PDF file. Please note that the PDF is in A4 size, if you use a different paper size the design might not be the correct size. When printed properly. Adad standing on his lion-dragon. Shamash with 'saw'. Shamash with 'flames'. Local war-god. Goddess opening her robes. Goddess holding her breasts. Nude Goddess with mountain-sheep. Goddess on a stag. Deity standing on a couchant gazelle. Weather-god with a sword. Weather-god with a plant. Deity on a donkey.
• • • Hinduism is an, or a way of life, widely practiced in. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as, 'the eternal tradition,' or the 'eternal way,' beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This 'Hindu synthesis' started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, following the (1500 BCE to 500 BCE). Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals,,, and. Are classified into ('heard') and ('remembered'). These texts discuss theology,,,,,, and, among other topics.
Major scriptures include the and, the, and the. Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is also a strong Hindu tradition of the questioning of this authority, to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely (ethics/duties), (prosperity/work), (desires/passions) and (liberation/freedom/salvation); (action, intent and consequences), (cycle of rebirth), and the various (paths or practices to attain moksha).
Hindu practices include rituals such as (worship) and recitations, meditation, family-oriented, annual festivals, and occasional pilgrimages. Some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions, then engage in lifelong (monastic practices) to achieve Moksha.
Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings (), patience, forbearance, self-restraint, and compassion, among others. The four largest of Hinduism are the,, and. Hinduism is the; its followers, known as, number about, or 15-16% of the global population. Hindus form the majority of the population in, and. Significant Hindu communities are also found in. Further information: The word Hindu is derived from the / root Sindhu, the name for the in the northwestern part of the (modern day Pakistan and ).
According to, 'The actual term 'Hindu' first occurs as a geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus (Sanskrit: Sindhu)', more specifically in the 6th-century BCE inscription of (550–486 BCE). The term Hindu in these ancient records is a geographical term and did not refer to a religion. Among the earliest known records of 'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by, and 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by 'Abd al-Malik. Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in – equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu, while hndstn (pronounced Hindustan) is found in a inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia. The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people who live across the River Indus. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, emerged as a popular alternative, meaning the 'land of Hindus'.
The term Hindu was later used occasionally in some Sanskrit texts such as the later of Kashmir (Hinduka, c. 1450) and some 16th- to 18th-century texts including and. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called (foreigners) or (barbarians), with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase ' Hindu dharma'. It was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism, then spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th-century to denote the religious, philosophical, and cultural traditions native to India. Definitions Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s) nor any binding holy book; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, pantheistic, monotheistic, monistic, agnostic, atheistic or humanist.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion 'defies our desire to define and categorize it'. Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, and 'a way of life.' From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, which is broader than the western term religion.
The study of India and its cultures and religions, and the definition of 'Hinduism', has been shaped by the interests of colonialism and by Western notions of religion. Since the 1990s, those influences and its outcomes have been the topic of debate among scholars of Hinduism, and have also been taken over by critics of the Western view on India.
A stylised letter of script, used as a religious symbol in Hinduism Hinduism as it is commonly known can be subdivided into a number of major currents. Of the historical division into six (philosophies), two schools, and, are currently the most prominent. Classified by primary deity or deities, four major Hinduism modern currents are (Vishnu), (Shiva), (Devi) and (five deities treated as same).
Hinduism also accepts numerous divine beings, with many Hindus considering the deities to be aspects or manifestations of a single impersonal absolute or ultimate reality or God, while some Hindus maintain that a specific deity represents the supreme and various deities are lower manifestations of this supreme. Other notable characteristics include a belief in existence of (soul, self), of one's ātman, and karma as well as a belief in dharma (duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and right way of living). McDaniel (2007) classifies Hinduism into six major kinds and numerous minor kinds, in order to understand expression of emotions among the Hindus. See also: Beginning in the 19th century, Indian modernists re-asserted Hinduism as a major asset of Indian civilisation, meanwhile 'purifying' Hinduism from its Tantric elements and elevating the Vedic elements.
Western stereotypes were reversed, emphasizing the universal aspects, and introducing modern approaches of social problems. This approach had a great appeal, not only in India, but also in the west. Major representatives of are,, and. Is known as the father of the. He was a major influence on Swami Vivekananda (1863–1902), who, according to Flood, was 'a figure of great importance in the development of a modern Hindu self-understanding and in formulating the West's view of Hinduism.' Central to his philosophy is the idea that the divine exists in all beings, that all human beings can achieve union with this 'innate divinity', and that seeing this divine as the essence of others will further love and social harmony. According to Vivekananda, there is an essential unity to Hinduism, which underlies the diversity of its many forms.
According to Flood, Vivekananda's vision of Hinduism 'is one generally accepted by most English-speaking middle-class Hindus today.' Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan sought to reconcile western rationalism with Hinduism, 'presenting Hinduism as an essentially rationalistic and humanistic religious experience.' This 'Global Hinduism' has a worldwide appeal, transcending national boundaries and, according to Flood, 'becoming a world religion alongside Christianity, Islam and Buddhism', both for the Hindu diaspora communities and for westerners who are attracted to non-western cultures and religions. It emphasizes universal spiritual values such as social justice, peace and 'the spiritual transformation of humanity.'
It has developed partly due to 're-enculturation', or the, in which elements of Hindu culture have been exported to the West, gaining popularity there, and as a consequence also gained greater popularity in India. This globalization of Hindu culture brought 'to the West teachings which have become an important cultural force in western societies, and which in turn have become an important cultural force in India, their place of origin.' Western understanding Western scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions. Which emerged after the Vedic period, between 500 -200 BCE and c.
300 CE, the beginning of the 'Epic and Puranic' c.q. 'Preclassical' period. Hinduism's tolerance to variations in belief and its broad range of traditions make it difficult to define as a religion according to traditional Western conceptions. Some academics suggest that Hinduism can be seen as a category with 'fuzzy edges' rather than as a well-defined and rigid entity. Some forms of religious expression are central to Hinduism and others, while not as central, still remain within the category. Based on this idea Ferro-Luzzi has developed a 'Prototype Theory approach' to the definition of Hinduism.
Diversity and unity Diversity. See also: Hinduism has been described as a tradition having a 'complex, organic, multileveled and sometimes internally inconsistent nature.' Hinduism does not have a 'unified system of belief encoded in a declaration of faith or a ', but is rather an umbrella term comprising the plurality of religious phenomena of India. According to the Supreme Court of India, Unlike other religions in the World, the Hindu religion does not claim any one Prophet, it does not worship any one God, it does not believe in any one philosophic concept, it does not follow any one act of religious rites or performances; in fact, it does not satisfy the traditional features of a religion or creed. It is a way of life and nothing more'.
Part of the problem with a single definition of the term Hinduism is the fact that Hinduism does not have a founder. It is a synthesis of various traditions, the 'Brahmanical orthopraxy, the renouncer traditions and popular or local traditions.' Some Hindu philosophies postulate a of creation, of sustenance, and of the destruction of the universe, yet, as they view Hinduism more as philosophy than religion. [ ] Sense of unity Despite the differences, there is also a sense of unity. Most Hindu traditions revere a body of religious or, the Vedas, although there are exceptions. These texts are a reminder of the ancient cultural heritage and point of pride for Hindus, with stating that 'even in the most orthodox domains, the reverence to the Vedas has come to be a simple raising of the hat'.
Halbfass states that, although Shaivism and Vaishaism may be regarded as 'self-contained religious constellations', there is a degree of interaction and reference between the 'theoreticians and literary representatives' of each tradition which indicates the presence of 'a wider sense of identity, a sense of coherence in a shared context and of inclusion in a common framework and horizon'. Indigenous developments The notion of common denominators for several religions and traditions of India was already noted from the 12th century CE on. Lorenzen traces the emergence of a 'family resemblance', and what he calls as 'beginnings of medieval and modern Hinduism' taking shape, at c.
300-600 CE, with the development of the early Puranas, and continuities with the earlier Vedic religion. Lorenzen states that the establishment of a Hindu self-identity took place 'through a process of mutual self-definition with a contrasting Muslim Other.' According to Lorenzen, this 'presence of the Other' is necessary to recognise the 'loose family resemblance' among the various traditions and schools, According to Nicholson, already between the 12th and the 16th centuries 'certain thinkers began to treat as a single whole the diverse philosophical teachings of the Upanishads, epics, Puranas, and the schools known retrospectively as the 'six systems' ( saddarsana) of mainstream Hindu philosophy.' The tendency of 'a blurring of philosophical distinctions' has also been noted by Burley. Hacker called this 'inclusivism' and Michaels speaks of 'the identificatory habit'. Lorenzen locates the origins of a distinct Hindu identity in the interaction between Muslims and Hindus, and a process of 'mutual self-definition with a contrasting Muslim other', which started well before 1800. Michaels notes: As a counteraction to Islamic supremacy and as part of the continuing process of regionalization, two religious innovations developed in the Hindu religions: the formation of sects and a historicization which preceded later nationalism [.] [S]aints and sometimes militant sect leaders, such as the Marathi poet Tukaram (1609-1649) and Ramdas (1608-1681), articulated ideas in which they glorified Hinduism and the past.
The Brahmins also produced increasingly historical texts, especially eulogies and chronicles of sacred sites (Mahatmyas), or developed a reflexive passion for collecting and compiling extensive collections of quotations on various subjects. This inclusivism was further developed in the 19th and 20th centuries by and, and has become characteristic of modern Hinduism. Colonial influences. See also: The notion and reports on 'Hinduism' as a 'single world religious tradition' was popularised by 19th-century proselytizing missionaries and European Indologists, roles sometimes served by the same person, who relied on texts preserved by Brahmins (priests) for their information of Indian religions, and animist observations which the missionary Orientalists presumed was Hinduism. These reports influenced perceptions about Hinduism. Some scholars [ ] state that the colonial polemical reports led to fabricated stereotypes where Hinduism was mere mystic paganism devoted to the service of devils, while other scholars state that the colonial constructions influenced the belief that the Vedas, Bhagavad Gita, Manusmriti and such texts were the essence of Hindu religiosity, and in the modern association of 'Hindu doctrine' with the schools of Vedanta (in particular Advaita Vedanta) as paradigmatic example of Hinduism's mystical nature'.
Pennington, while concurring that the study of Hinduism as a world religion began in the colonial era, disagrees that Hinduism is a colonial European era invention. He states that the shared theology, common ritual grammar and way of life of those who identify themselves as Hindus is traceable to ancient times. See also:,,,, and Classical Hindu thought accepts four proper goals or aims of human life:,, and.
These are known as the: Dharma (righteousness, ethics) Dharma is considered the foremost goal of a human being in Hinduism. The concept Dharma includes behaviors that are considered to be in accord with, the order that makes life and universe possible, and includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and 'right way of living'. Hindu Dharma includes the religious duties, moral rights and duties of each individual, as well as behaviors that enable social order, right conduct, and those that are virtuous. Dharma, according to, is that which all existing beings must accept and respect to sustain harmony and order in the world. It is, states Van Buitenen, the pursuit and execution of one's nature and true calling, thus playing one's role in cosmic concert. The states it as: Nothing is higher than Dharma. The weak overcomes the stronger by Dharma, as over a king.
Truly that Dharma is the Truth ( Satya); Therefore, when a man speaks the Truth, they say, 'He speaks the Dharma'; and if he speaks Dharma, they say, 'He speaks the Truth!' For both are one. Main article: Moksha (: मोक्ष mokṣa) or mukti (: मुक्ति) is the ultimate, most important goal in Hinduism. In one sense, Moksha is a concept associated with liberation from sorrow, suffering and saṃsāra (birth-rebirth cycle). A release from this eschatological cycle, in after life, particularly in theistic schools of Hinduism is called moksha. In other schools of Hinduism, such as monistic, moksha is a goal achievable in current life, as a state of bliss through self-realization, of comprehending the nature of one's soul, of freedom and of 'realizing the whole universe as the Self'.
Karma and samsara. Main article: Karma translates literally as action, work, or deed, and also refers to a Vedic theory of 'moral law of cause and effect'.
The theory is a combination of (1) causality that may be ethical or non-ethical; (2) ethicization, that is good or bad actions have consequences; and (3) rebirth. Karma theory is interpreted as explaining the present circumstances of an individual with reference to his or her actions in past.
These actions may be those in a person's current life, or, in some schools of Hinduism, possibly actions in their past lives; furthermore, the consequences may result in current life, or a person's future lives. This cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth is called samsara. Liberation from samsara through moksha is believed to ensure lasting happiness and peace. Hindu scriptures teach that the future is both a function of current human effort derived from free will and past human actions that set the circumstances. Moksha The ultimate goal of life, referred to as moksha, or, is understood in several different ways: as the realization of one's union with God; as the realization of one's eternal relationship with God; realization of the unity of all existence; perfect unselfishness and knowledge of the Self; as the attainment of perfect mental peace; and as detachment from worldly desires. Such realization liberates one from samsara, thereby ending the cycle of rebirth, sorrow and suffering. Due to belief in the indestructibility of the soul, death is deemed insignificant with respect to the cosmic self.
The meaning of moksha differs among the various Hindu schools of thought. For example, Advaita Vedanta holds that after attaining moksha a person knows their 'soul, self' and identifies it as one with Brahman and everyone in all respects. The followers of (dualistic) schools, in moksha state, identify individual 'soul, self' as distinct from Brahman but infinitesimally close, and after attaining moksha expect to spend eternity in a (heaven).
To theistic schools of Hinduism, moksha is liberation from samsara, while for other schools such as the monistic school, moksha is possible in current life and is a psychological concept. According to Deutsche, moksha is transcendental consciousness to the latter, the perfect state of being, of self-realization, of freedom and of 'realizing the whole universe as the Self'. Moksha in these schools of Hinduism, suggests, implies a setting free of hitherto fettered faculties, a removing of obstacles to an unrestricted life, permitting a person to be more truly a person in the full sense; the concept presumes an unused human potential of creativity, compassion and understanding which had been blocked and shut out. Moksha is more than liberation from life-rebirth cycle of suffering (samsara); Vedantic school separates this into two: jivanmukti (liberation in this life) and videhamukti (liberation after death). Concept of God. Main articles: and Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning,,,,,, and among others; and its concept of God is complex and depends upon each individual and the tradition and philosophy followed.
It is sometimes referred to as (i.e., involving devotion to a single god while accepting the existence of others), but any such term is an overgeneralization. The ( Creation Hymn) of the is one of the earliest texts which 'demonstrates a sense of metaphysical speculation' about what created the universe, the concept of god(s) and The One, and whether even The One knows how the universe came into being. The Rig Veda praises various deities, none superior nor inferior, in a henotheistic manner.
The hymns repeatedly refer to One Truth and Reality. The 'One Truth' of Vedic literature, in modern era scholarship, has been interpreted as monotheism, monism, as well as a deified Hidden Principles behind the great happenings and processes of nature.
Hindus believe that all living creatures have a soul. This soul – the spirit or true 'self' of every person, is called the.
The soul is believed to be eternal. According to the monistic/pantheistic () theologies of Hinduism (such as school), this Atman is indistinct from, the supreme spirit. The goal of life, according to the Advaita school, is to realise that one's soul is identical to supreme soul, that the supreme soul is present in everything and everyone, all life is interconnected and there is oneness in all life. Schools (see and ) understand Brahman as a Supreme Being separate from individual souls. They worship the Supreme Being variously as,,, or, depending upon the sect. God is called,,, or, and these terms have different meanings in different schools of Hinduism. Hindu texts accept a polytheistic framework, but this is generally conceptualized as the divine essence or luminosity that gives vitality and animation to the inanimate natural substances.
There is a divine in everything, human beings, animals, trees and rivers. It is observable in offerings to rivers, trees, tools of one's work, animals and birds, rising sun, friends and guests, teachers and parents. It is the divine in these that makes each sacred and worthy of reverence. This seeing divinity in everything, state Buttimer and Wallin, makes the Vedic foundations of Hinduism quite distinct from. The animistic premise sees multiplicity, power differences and competition between man and man, man and animal, as well as man and nature.
The Vedic view does not see this competition, rather sees a unifying divinity that connects everyone and everything. The Hindu scriptures refer to celestial entities called (or in feminine form; devatā used synonymously for Deva in Hindi), which may be translated into English as gods or heavenly beings.
The devas are an integral part of Hindu culture and are depicted in art, architecture and through, and stories about them are related in the scriptures, particularly in and the. They are, however, often distinguished from, a personal god, with many Hindus worshipping Ishvara in one of its particular manifestations as their, or chosen ideal. The choice is a matter of individual preference, and of regional and family traditions. The multitude of Devas are considered as manifestations of Brahman. The word does not appear in the Vedic literature, but appears in verb forms in post-Vedic literature, and as a noun particularly in the literature after the 6th century CE. Theologically, the reincarnation idea is most often associated with the avatars of Hindu god, though the idea has been applied to other deities.
Varying lists of avatars of Vishnu appear in Hindu scriptures, including the ten of the and the twenty-two avatars in the, though the latter adds that the incarnations of Vishnu are innumerable. The avatars of Vishnu are important in theology. In the goddess-based tradition of Hinduism, avatars of the are found and all goddesses are considered to be different aspects of the same metaphysical Brahman and Shakti (energy).
While avatars of other deities such as and are also mentioned in medieval Hindu texts, this is minor and occasional. Both theistic and atheistic ideas, for epistemological and metaphysical reasons, are profuse in different schools of Hinduism.
The early school of Hinduism, for example, was non-theist/atheist, but later Nyaya school scholars argued that God exists and offered proofs using its theory of logic. Other schools disagreed with Nyaya scholars., and schools of Hinduism, were non-theist/atheist, arguing that 'God was an unnecessary metaphysical assumption'. Its school started as another non-theistic tradition relying on naturalism and that all matter is eternal, but it later introduced the concept of a non-creator God.
The school of Hinduism accepted the concept of a 'personal god' and left it to the Hindu to define his or her god. Advaita Vedanta taught a monistic, abstract Self and Oneness in everything, with no room for gods or deity, a perspective that Mohanty calls, 'spiritual, not religious'. Bhakti sub-schools of Vedanta taught a creator God that is distinct from each human being. According to, Hinduism has the strongest presence of the divine feminine in world religion from ancient times to the present. The goddess is viewed as the heart of the most esoteric Saiva traditions.
Authority Authority and eternal truths play an important role in Hinduism. Religious traditions and truths are believed to be contained in its sacred texts, which are accessed and taught by sages,, saints.
But there is also a strong tradition of the questioning of authority, internal debate and challenging of religious texts in Hinduism. The Hindus believe that this deepens the understanding of the eternal truths and further develops the tradition. Authority 'was mediated through [.] an intellectual culture that tended to develop ideas collaboratively, and according to the shared logic of natural reason.' Narratives in the present characters questioning persons of authority. The repeatedly asks kena, 'by what' power something is the case.
The and present narratives where the student criticizes the teacher's inferior answers. In the, Shiva questions Vishnu and Brahma. Doubt plays a repeated role in the. Presents criticism via the character of.
Main traditions. A Ganesha-centric ('five deities', from the Smarta tradition): (centre) with (top left), (top right), (bottom left) and Surya (bottom right). All these deities also have separate sects dedicated to them. Hinduism has no central doctrinal authority and many practising Hindus do not claim to belong to any particular denomination or tradition. Four major denominations are, however, used in scholarly studies: Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and Smartism. These denominations differ primarily in the central deity worshipped, the traditions and the outlook. The denominations of Hinduism, states Lipner, are unlike those found in major religions of the world, because Hindu denominations are fuzzy with individuals practicing more than one, and he suggests the term 'Hindu polycentrism'.
Is the devotional religious tradition that worships and his avatars, particularly and. The adherents of this sect are generally non-ascetic, monastic, oriented towards community events and devotionalism practices inspired by 'intimate loving, joyous, playful' Krishna and other Vishnu avatars. These practices sometimes include community dancing, singing of and, with sound and music believed by some to have meditative and spiritual powers. Temple worship and festivals are typically elaborate in Vaishnavism. The Bhagavad Gita and the Ramayana, along with Vishnu-oriented Puranas provide its theistic foundations. Philosophically, their beliefs are rooted in the dualism sub-schools of Vedantic Hinduism.
Is the tradition that focuses on. Shaivas are more attracted to ascetic individualism, and it has several sub-schools. Their practices include Bhakti-style devotionalism, yet their beliefs lean towards nondual, monistic schools of Hinduism such as Advaita and. Some Shaivas worship in temples, while others emphasize yoga, striving to be one with Shiva within. Avatars are uncommon, and some Shaivas visualize god as half male, half female, as a fusion of the male and female principles ().
Shaivism is related to Shaktism, wherein Shakti is seen as spouse of Shiva. Community celebrations include festivals, and participation, with Vaishnavas, in pilgrimages such as the. Shaivism has been more commonly practiced in the Himalayan north from Kashmir to Nepal, and in south India. Focuses on goddess worship of or Devi as cosmic mother, and it is particularly common in northeastern and eastern states of India such as and. Devi is depicted as in gentler forms like, the consort of Shiva; or, as fierce warrior goddesses like and. Followers of Shaktism recognize as the power that underlies the male principle. Shaktism is also associated with practices.
Community celebrations include festivals, some of which include processions and idol immersion into sea or other water bodies. Centers its worship simultaneously on all the major Hindu deities: Shiva, Vishnu, Shakti,, and. The Smarta tradition developed during the (early) Classical Period of Hinduism around the beginning of the Common Era, when Hinduism emerged from the interaction between Brahmanism and local traditions. The Smarta tradition is aligned with, and regards as its founder or reformer, who considered worship of God-with-attributes (saguna Brahman) as a journey towards ultimately realizing God-without-attributes (nirguna Brahman, Atman, Self-knowledge). The term Smartism is derived from Smriti texts of Hinduism, meaning those who remember the traditions in the texts.
This Hindu sect practices a philosophical, scriptural studies, reflection, meditative path seeking an understanding of Self's oneness with God. Main article: Major life stage milestones are celebrated as sanskara ( saṃskāra, ) in Hinduism. The rites of passage are not mandatory, and vary in details by gender, community and regionally. Gautama composed in about the middle of 1st millennium BCE lists 48 sanskaras, while and other texts composed centuries later list between 12 and 16 sanskaras.
The list of sanskaras in Hinduism include both external rituals such as those marking a baby's birth and a baby's name giving ceremony, as well as inner rites of resolutions and ethics such as towards all living beings and positive attitude. A home shrine with offerings at a regional festival (left); a priest in a temple (right).
Bhakti refers to devotion, participation in and the love of a personal god or a representational god by a devotee. Bhakti marga is considered in Hinduism as one of many possible paths of spirituality and alternate means to moksha. The other paths, left to the choice of a Hindu, are Jnana marga (path of knowledge), Karma marga (path of works), Rāja marga (path of contemplation and meditation).
Download Song Andekhi Anjani Kya Yeh Mohabbat Hai here. Bhakti is practiced in a number of ways, ranging from reciting, (incantations), to individual private prayers within one's home shrine, or in a temple or near a river bank, sometimes in the presence of an idol or image of a deity. And domestic altars, states Lynn Foulston, are important elements of worship in contemporary theistic Hinduism. Download Fm 2014 Full Crack on this page. While many visit a temple on a special occasion, most offer a brief prayer on an everyday basis at the domestic altar. This bhakti is expressed in a domestic shrine which typically is a dedicated part of the home and includes the images of deities or the gurus the Hindu chooses.
Among Vaishnavism sub-traditions such as Swaminarayan, the home shrines can be elaborate with either a room dedicated to it or a dedicated part of the kitchen. The devotee uses this space for daily prayers or meditation, either before breakfast or after day's work.
Bhakti is sometimes private inside household shrines and sometimes practiced as a community. It may include,, musical or singing, where devotional verses and hymns are read or poems are sung by a group of devotees. While the choice of the deity is at the discretion of the Hindu, the most observed traditions of Hindu devotionalism include (Vishnu), (Shiva) and (Shakti).
A Hindu may worship multiple deities, all as henotheistic manifestations of the same ultimate reality, cosmic spirit and absolute spiritual concept called in Hinduism. Bhakti marga, states Pechelis, is more than ritual devotionalism, it includes practices and spiritual activities aimed at refining one's state of mind, knowing god, participating in god, and internalizing god. While Bhakti practices are popular and easily observable aspect of Hinduism, not all Hindus practice Bhakti, or believe in god-with-attributes ( saguna Brahman).
Concurrent Hindu practices include a belief in god-without-attributes, and god within oneself. The festival of lights,, is celebrated by Hindus all over the world. Hindu festivals (: Utsava; literally: 'to lift higher') are ceremonies that weave individual and social life to dharma. Hinduism has many festivals throughout the year, where the dates are set by the lunisolar, many coinciding with either the full moon ( Holi) or the new moon ( Diwali), often with seasonal changes. Some festivals are found only regionally and they celebrate local traditions, while a few such as Holi and Diwali are pan-Hindu.
The festivals typically celebrate events from Hinduism, connoting spiritual themes and celebrating aspects of human relationships such as the Sister-Brother bond over the Raksha Bandhan (or ) festival. The same festival sometimes marks different stories depending on the Hindu denomination, and the celebrations incorporate regional themes, traditional agriculture, local arts, family get togethers, rituals and feasts. Some major regional or pan-Hindu festivals include. Pilgrimage to Pilgrimage sites are called, Kshetra, Gopitha or Mahalaya in Hinduism. The process or journey associated with Tirtha is called Tirtha-yatra. According to the Hindu text, Tirtha are of three kinds: Jangam Tirtha is to a place movable of a, a, a; Sthawar Tirtha is to a place immovable, like Benaras, Hardwar, Mount Kailash, holy rivers; while Manas Tirtha is to a place of mind of truth, charity, patience, compassion, soft speech, soul. Tīrtha-yatra is, states Knut A.
Jacobsen, anything that has a salvific value to a Hindu, and includes pilgrimage sites such as mountains or forests or seashore or rivers or ponds, as well as virtues, actions, studies or state of mind. Pilgrimage sites of Hinduism are mentioned in the epic Mahabharata and the. Most Puranas include large sections on Tirtha Mahatmya along with tourist guides, which describe sacred sites and places to visit. In these texts, Varanasi (Benares, Kashi),,,,,,,,,,,, twelve and have been mentioned as particularly holy sites, along with geographies where major rivers meet ( sangam) or join the sea. Is another major pilgrimage on the eve of the solar festival.
This pilgrimage rotates at a gap of three years among four sites: at the confluence the Ganges and rivers, near source of the, on the river and on the bank of the river. This is one of world's largest mass pilgrimage, with an estimated 40 to 100 million people attending the event. At this event, they say a prayer to the sun and bathe in the river, a tradition attributed to. Some pilgrimages are part of a Vrata (vow), which a Hindu may make for a number of reasons.
It may mark a special occasion, such as the birth of a baby, or as part of a such as a baby's first haircut, or after healing from a sickness. It may, states Eck, also be the result of prayers answered. An alternate reason for Tirtha, for some Hindus, is to respect wishes or in memory of a beloved person after his or her death.
This may include dispersing their cremation ashes in a Tirtha region in a stream, river or sea to honor the wishes of the dead. The journey to a Tirtha, assert some Hindu texts, helps one overcome the sorrow of the loss. Other reasons for a Tirtha in Hinduism is to rejuvenate or gain spiritual merit by traveling to famed temples or bathe in rivers such as the Ganges. Tirtha has been one of the recommended means of addressing remorse and to perform penance, for unintentional errors and intentional sins, in the Hindu tradition. The proper procedure for a pilgrimage is widely discussed in Hindu texts.
The most accepted view is that the greatest austerity comes from traveling on foot, or part of the journey is on foot, and that the use of a conveyance is only acceptable if the pilgrimage is otherwise impossible. Is not mandatory in Hinduism, though many adherents undertake them. Person and society Varnas. Main article: Hindu society has been categorised into four classes, called varnas. They are the: Vedic teachers and priests; the: warriors and kings; the: farmers and merchants; and the: servants and labourers. The links the varna to an individual's duty ( svadharma), inborn nature ( svabhāva), and natural tendencies ( ). The categorises the different castes.
Some mobility and flexibility within the varnas challenge allegations of social discrimination in the caste system, as has been pointed out by several sociologists, although some other scholars disagree. Scholars debate whether the so-called is part of Hinduism sanctioned by the scriptures or social custom. And various contemporary scholars have argued that the caste system was constructed by the. A man of knowledge is usually called Varnatita or 'beyond all varnas' in Vedantic works. The bhiksu is advised to not bother about the caste of the family from which he begs his food. Scholars like Adi Sankara affirm that not only is Brahman beyond all varnas, the man who is identified with Him also transcends the distinctions and limitations of caste.
Main article: In whatever way a Hindu defines the goal of life, there are several methods (yogas) that sages have taught for reaching that goal. Yoga is a Hindu discipline which trains the body, mind and consciousness for health, tranquility and spiritual insight. This is done through a system of postures and exercises to practise control of the body and mind.
Texts dedicated to Yoga include the, the, the and, as their philosophical and historical basis, the Upanishads. Yoga is means, and the four major marga (paths) discussed in Hinduism are: (the path of love and devotion), (the path of right action), (the path of meditation), (the path of wisdom) An individual may prefer one or some yogas over others, according to his or her inclination and understanding. Practice of one yoga does not exclude others.
The Hindu deity is sometimes linked to the symbol. Hinduism has a developed system of symbolism and iconography to represent the sacred in art, architecture, literature and worship.
These symbols gain their meaning from the scriptures or cultural traditions. The syllable (which represents the and ) has grown to represent Hinduism itself, while other markings such as the sign represent auspiciousness, and (literally, seed) on forehead – considered to be the location of spiritual third eye, marks ceremonious welcome, blessing or one's participation in a ritual or rite of passage. Elaborate Tilaka with lines may also identify a devotee of a particular denomination.
Flowers, birds, animals, instruments, symmetric drawings, objects, idols are all part of symbolic iconography in Hinduism. Ahimsa, vegetarianism and other food customs. Main articles:,, and A is a house of god(s). It is a space and structure designed to bring human beings and gods together, infused with symbolism to express the ideas and beliefs of Hinduism. A temple incorporates all elements of Hindu cosmology, the highest spire or dome representing – reminder of the abode of Brahma and the center of spiritual universe, the carvings and iconography symbolically presenting,,, and. The layout, the motifs, the plan and the building process recite ancient rituals, geometric symbolisms, and reflect beliefs and values innate within various schools of Hinduism.
Hindu temples are spiritual destinations for many Hindus (not all), as well as landmarks for arts, annual festivals, rituals, and community celebrations. The, a temple in Hindu temples come in many styles, diverse locations, deploy different construction methods and are adapted to different deities and regional beliefs. Two major styles of Hindu temples include the style found in south India, and style found in north India. Other styles include cave, forest and mountain temples. Yet, despite their differences, almost all Hindu temples share certain common architectural principles, core ideas, symbolism and themes.
Many temples feature one or more idols (). The idol and Grabhgriya in the Brahma-pada (the center of the temple), under the main spire, serves as a focal point ( darsana, a sight) in a Hindu temple. In larger temples, the central space typically is surrounded by an ambulatory for the devotee to walk around and ritually circumambulate the (), the universal essence. A sadhu in, India Some Hindus choose to live a life (Sannyāsa) in pursuit of liberation (moksha) or another form of spiritual perfection. Monastics commit themselves to a simple and celibate life, detached from material pursuits, of meditation and spiritual contemplation. A Hindu monk is called a, Sādhu, or Swāmi.
A female renunciate is called a Sanyāsini. Renunciates receive high respect in Hindu society because of their simple -driven lifestyle and dedication to spiritual liberation (moksha) – believed to be the ultimate goal of life in Hinduism. Some monastics live in monasteries, while others wander from place to place, depending on donated food and charity for their needs. (230 BC–AD 220) (200 BC–AD 300) (c. 50 BC) (185–73 BC) (180 BC–AD 10) (75–26 BC) (50 BC–AD 400) (AD 21–c. 130) (AD 35–405 ) (AD 60–240) (170–350) (210–340) (224–651) (230–360) (c.
600) (280–550) (345–525) (350–1000) (350–1100) (420–624) (475–767) (475–576) (489–632) (c. 500–1026) (543–753) (c. 700) (606–647) (618–841) (624–1075) (632–661) (650–1036) (661–750) (750–1174) (753–982) (800–1327) (850–1334) (942–1244) (973–1189) (1003–1320) (1040–1346) (1070–1230) (1078–1434) (1083–1323) (1102–1766) (675-1210) (1156–1184) (1187–1673) (c. The seal, The earliest in India that may have left its traces in Hinduism comes from mesolithic as observed in the sites such as the rock paintings of dating to a period of 30,000 BCE or older, as well as neolithic times. Some of the religious practices can be considered to have originated in 4000 BCE. Several still exist, though their practices may not resemble those of prehistoric religions.
According to anthropologist, the 'provides a logical, if somewhat arbitrary, starting point for some aspects of the later Hindu tradition'. The religion of this period included worship of a Great male god, which is compared to a proto-Shiva, and probably a Mother Goddess, that may prefigure. However these links of deities and practices of the Indus religion to later-day Hinduism are subject to both political contention and scholarly dispute. Vedic period (c.
1500–500 BCE). In the late 20th century forms of Hinduism have grown indigenous roots in parts of Russia, significantly in where Hinduism is now the religion of 2% of the population. Hindu revivalism With the onset of the, the colonization of India by the British, there also started a in the 19th century, which profoundly changed the understanding of Hinduism in both India and the west.
As an academic discipline of studying Indian culture from a European perspective was established in the 19th century, led by scholars such as and. They brought Vedic, Puranic and Tantric literature and philosophy to Europe and the United States. Western searched for the 'essence' of the Indian religions, discerning this in the Vedas, and meanwhile creating the notion of 'Hinduism' as a unified body of religious praxis and the popular picture of 'mystical India'. This idea of a Vedic essence was taken over by Hindu reform movements as the, which was supported for a while by the, together with the ideas of and, the idea that all religions share a common ground. This, with proponents like, and, became central in the popular understanding of Hinduism. Popularity in the west Influential 20th-century Hindus were,,,, (founder of ),, and others who translated, reformulated and presented Hinduism's foundational texts for contemporary audiences in new iterations, raising the profiles of Yoga and Vedanta in the West and attracting followers and attention in India and abroad.
Hindu practices such as Yoga, Ayurvedic health, Tantric sexuality through and the have spread beyond Hindu communities and have been accepted by several non-Hindus: Hinduism is attracting Western adherents through the affiliated practice of yoga. Yoga centers in the West—which generally advocate vegetarianism—attract young, well-educated Westerners who are drawn by yoga's benefits for the physical and emotional health; there they are introduced to the Hindu philosophical system taught by most yoga teachers, known as Vedanta. It is estimated that around 30 million Americans and 5 million Europeans regularly practice some form of Hatha Yoga.
In Australia, the number of practitioners is about 300,000. In New Zealand the number is also around 300,000. Hindutva In the 20th century, Hinduism also gained prominence as a political force and a source for national identity in India.
With origins traced back to the establishment of the in the 1910s, the movement grew with the formulation and development of the ideology in the following decades; the establishment of (RSS) in 1925; and the entry, and later success, of RSS offshoots and (BJP) in electoral politics in post-independence India. Hindu religiosity plays an important role in the nationalist movement. • • • Hinduism is a major religion in India.
Hinduism was followed by around 79.8% of the country's population of 1.21 billion (2011 census) (960 million adherents). Other are found in Nepal (23 million), Bangladesh (15 million) and the island of (3.9 million). The majority of the Vietnamese also follow Hinduism. Countries with the greatest proportion of Hindus (as of 2008 ): • 81.3% • 79.8% • 51.9% • 28.4% • 27.9% • 25% • 20% • 18.2% • 12.6% • 9.6% • 7.2% • 6.7% • 6.3% • 6.25% • 6% • 5.1% • 5% • 3% • 2.3% • 2.1% Demographically, Hinduism is the, after and.
Conversion debate In the modern era, religious conversion from and to Hinduism has been a controversial subject. Some state the concept of missionary conversion, either way, is anathema to the precepts of Hinduism. Religious conversion to Hinduism has a long history outside India.
Merchants and traders of India, particularly from the Indian peninsula, carried their religious ideas, which led to religious conversions to Hinduism in southeast Asia. Within India, archeological and textual evidence such as the 2nd century BCE suggest that Greeks and other foreigners converted to Hinduism. The debate on proselytization and religious conversion between Christianity, Islam and Hinduism is more recent, and started in the 19th century.
Religious leaders of some Hindu reform movements such as the launched Shuddhi movement to proselytize and reconvert Muslims and Christians back to Hinduism, while those such as the suggested Hinduism to be a non-missionary religion. All these sects of Hinduism have welcomed new members to their group, while other leaders of Hinduism's diverse schools have stated that given the intensive proselytization activities from missionary Islam and Christianity, this 'there is no such thing as proselytism in Hinduism' view must be re-examined. The appropriateness of conversion from major religions to Hinduism, and vice versa, has been and remains an actively debated topic in India, and in Indonesia. See also Hinduism.
• Ghurye: He [Hutton] considers modern Hinduism to be the result of an amalgam between pre-Aryan Indian beliefs of Mediterranean inspiration and the religion of the Rigveda. 'The Tribal religions present, as it were, surplus material not yet built into the temple of Hinduism'.(, p. 4) • Tyler, in India: An Anthropological Perspective(1973), page 68, as quoted by Sjoberg, calls Hinduism a 'synthesis' in which the Dravidian elements prevail: 'The Hindu synthesis was less the dialectical reduction of orthodoxy and heterodoxy than the resurgence of the ancient, aboriginal Indus civilization. In this process the rude, barbaric Aryan tribes were gradually civilised and eventually merged with the autochthonous Dravidians. Although elements of their domestic cult and ritualism were jealously preserved by Brahman priests, the body of their culture survived only in fragmentary tales and allegories embedded in vast, syncretistic compendia.
On the whole, the Aryan contribution to Indian culture is insignificant. The essential pattern of Indian culture was already established in the third millennium B.C., and. The form of Indian civilization perdured and eventually reasserted itself.
(, p. 43) •, p. 79: 'The religion that the Aryans brought with them mingled with the religion of the native people, and the culture that developed between them became classical Hinduism.' • Sweetman cites Richard King (1999) p.128.() • Sweetman cites Dirks (2001), Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India, Princeton University Press, p. Xxvii • Sweetman cites Viswanathan (2003), Colonialism and the Construction of Hinduism, p.26 • Smart distinguishes 'Brahmanism' from the Vedic religion, connecting 'Brahmanism' with the Upanishads.
Risuke Ōtake Risuke Ōtake ( 大竹利典, Otake Risuke) (born March 10, 1926), full name Ōtake Risuke Minamoto no Takeyuki ( 大竹利典源健之, Ōtake Risuke Minamoto no Takeyuki), is a. He is a long time (Teaching Master) of, which he learned as a disciple of the previous teaching master Hayashi Yazaemon (1892-1964) from the time he entered the school at the age of 16, in 1942. In 1967, when Otake-sensei was 42 years old, he received gokui kaiden, the highest level of attainment in the tradition, and at the same time became the school's teaching master. He lives and teaches in rural location near city, in of. The teachings of Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū were designated an Intangible Cultural Asset of Chiba Prefecture in 1960, with Ōtake designated as guardian of the tradition. He has authored a book Katori Shinto-ryu: Warrior Tradition as well as an earlier three-volume set of books on the tradition entitled, The Deity and the Sword: Katori Shinto-ryu.
He is a member of the Chiba Prefecture Board of Registrars and Appraisers for Muskets and Swords; a position he has held since 1979.