• Summer () (−4 to −10 ) Date format mm/dd/yyyy () right The United States of America ( USA), commonly known as the United States ( U.S.) or America, is a composed of 50, a, five major, and. At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km 2) and with over 325 million people, the United States is the world's and the. The capital is, and the is. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are and located in between and. The is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the from to the west. The is an in the mid. Are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the, stretching across nine official.
This catalogue was compiled in honor of the 80th birthday of Aaron Copland. Perhaps no composer of his generation did more than Copland to carve a niche. LAS AGACHADAS (1942) For unaccompanied mixed chorus...... APPALACHIAN SPRING (1944) Ballet in one act for 13 instruments.
The extremely diverse,, and of the United States make it one of the world's 17. To the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. Began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from the established along the. Numerous disputes between and the colonies following the led to the, which began in 1775, and the subsequent in 1776. The war with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a. The was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many.
The United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century,,, and gradually until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the led to the outlawing of. By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, and its economy, driven in large part by the, began to soar. The and confirmed the country's status as a global military power. The United States emerged from as a global, the, the only country to, and a of the. During the, the United States and the competed in the, culminating with the. The end of the Cold War and the in 1991 left the United States as the world's.
The United States is a founding member of the,,, (OAS), and other international organizations. The United States is a highly, with the world's and, accounting for approximately a quarter of global GDP. The is the fastest-growing in the and is largely, characterized by the dominance of and activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. Though its population is only 4.3% of the world total, Americans hold, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. The United States nations in several measures of socioeconomic performance, including,,, and productivity per person. Is the foremost power in the world, making up a third of, and is a leading,, and force internationally. The Americas are named after Italian explorer.
In 1507, the German cartographer produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer (: Americus Vespucius). The first documentary evidence of the phrase 'United States of America' is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by, Esq., 's and Muster-Master General of the. Addressed to, Moylan expressed his wish to carry the 'full and ample powers of the United States of America' to Spain to assist in the revolutionary war effort. The first known publication of the phrase 'United States of America' was in an anonymous essay in newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the, prepared by and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared 'The name of this Confederation shall be the 'United States of America '.
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence 'The Stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United States of America '. In June 1776, wrote the phrase 'UNITED STATES OF AMERICA' in all capitalized letters in the headline of his 'original Rough draught' of the. This draft of the document did not surface until June 21, 1776, and it is unclear whether it was written before or after Dickinson used the term in his June 17 draft of the Articles of Confederation. The short form 'United States' is also standard. Other common forms are the 'U.S.' , the 'USA', and 'America'. Colloquial names are the 'U.S.
And, internationally, the 'States'. ', a name popular in poetry and songs of the late 18th century, derives its origin from; it appears in the name '. The phrase 'United States' was originally plural, a description of a collection of independent states—e.g., 'the United States are'—including in the, ratified in 1865. The singular form—e.g., 'the United States is'—became popular after the end of the American Civil War. The singular form is now standard; the plural form is retained in the idiom 'these United States'. The difference is more significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of states and a unit. A citizen of the United States is an '.
'United States', 'American' and 'U.S.' Refer to the country adjectivally ('American values', 'U.S. forces').
In English, the word ' rarely refers to topics or subjects not connected with the United States. In, a and the largest and most influential settlement in.
The concrete staircase follows the approximate course of ancient wooden stairs. The migrated from by way of the and arrived at least 15,000 years ago, though increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival.
After crossing the land bridge, the first Americans moved southward, either along the Pacific coast or through an interior ice-free corridor between the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets. The appeared around 11,000 BC, and it is considered to be an ancestor of most of the later indigenous cultures of the Americas. While the Clovis culture was thought, throughout the late 20th century, to represent the first human settlement of the Americas, in recent years consensus has changed in recognition of pre-Clovis cultures. Over time, indigenous cultures in North America grew increasingly complex, and some, such as the in the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies. From approximately 800 to 1600 AD the Mississippian culture flourished, and its largest city is considered the largest, most complex pre-Columbian in the modern-day United States.
While in the region, culture developed. Three located in the United States are credited to the Pueblos:, and. In the southern region, the (Haudenosaunee) was established at some point between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries, lasting until the end of the Revolutionary War. The date of the first settlements of the is a topic of continuing debate. Evidence seems to indicate a settlement as early as 124 AD.
During his, became the first European to begin formal contact with Hawaii. After his initial landfall in January 1778 at harbour,, Cook named the the 'Sandwich Islands' after the —the acting of the British. European settlements.
Death of Captain Cook by (1795) With the progress of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the were often. The after Europeans arrived, and for various reasons, primarily diseases such as and. Violence was not a significant factor in the overall decline among, though conflict among themselves and with Europeans affected specific tribes and various colonial settlements. In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans. Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars. At the same time, however, many natives and settlers came to depend on each other.
Settlers traded for food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European wares. Natives taught many settlers where, when and how to cultivate corn, beans and squash. European missionaries and others felt it was important to 'civilize' the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural techniques and lifestyles.
Captain James Cook's last voyage included sailing along the coast of North America and Alaska searching for a for approximately nine months. He returned to the Hawaii to resupply, initially exploring the coasts of and the, trading with locals and then making anchor at in January 1779. When his ships and company left the islands, a ship's mast broke in bad weather, forcing them to return in mid-February. Cook would be killed days later. Independence and expansion (1776–1865). By The American Revolutionary War was the first successful colonial war of independence against a European power. Americans had developed an ideology of ' asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures.
They demanded their and 'no taxation without representation'. The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and escalated into war. Following the passage of the, on July 2, 1776, which was the actual vote for independence, the adopted the on July 4, which proclaimed, in a long preamble, that humanity is created equal in their unalienable rights and that those rights were not being protected by, and declared, in the words of the resolution, that the were independent states and had no allegiance to the British crown in the United States. The fourth day of July is celebrated annually as. The Second Continental Congress declared on September 9 'where, heretofore, the words 'United Colonies' have been used, the stile be altered for the future to the 'United States' '. In 1777, the established a weak government that operated until 1789.
Britain recognized the independence of the United States following their in 1781. In the, American sovereignty was recognized from the Atlantic coast west to the. Nationalists led the of 1787 in writing the, in state conventions in 1788. The federal government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances, in 1789. George Washington, who had led the revolutionary army to victory, was the first elected under the new constitution. The, forbidding federal restriction of and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in 1791. Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in 1808, after 1820, cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the, and along with it, the slave population.
The, especially 1800–1840, converted millions to Protestantism. In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including; in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations. Americans' eagerness to prompted a long series of. The of French-claimed territory in 1803 almost doubled the nation's area. The, declared against Britain over various grievances and fought to a draw, strengthened U.S. A series of military incursions into Florida led it and other Gulf Coast territory in 1819.
Expansion was aided by, when began traveling along America's large water systems, which were connected by new, such as the and the; then, even faster railroads began their stretch across the nation's land. From 1820 to 1850, began a set of reforms which included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from 1828 to 1854. The in the 1830s exemplified the that resettled Indians into the west on. Annexed the in 1845 during a period of expansionist.
The 1846 with Britain led to U.S. Control of the present-day.
Victory in the resulted in the 1848 of California and much of the present-day. The of 1848–49 spurred western migration and the creation of additional western states. After the, new transcontinental made relocation easier for settlers, expanded internal trade and increased conflicts with Native Americans. Over a half-century, the loss of the (sometimes called 'buffalo') was an existential blow to many cultures. In 1869, a new sought to protect Native-Americans from abuses, avoid further war, and secure their eventual U.S.
Citizenship, although conflicts, including several of the largest Indian Wars, continued throughout the West into the 1900s. The by Differences of opinion regarding of and ultimately led to the. Initially, states entering the Union had alternated between, keeping a sectional balance in the Senate, while free states outstripped slave states in population and in the House of Representatives. But with additional western territory and more free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, whether and how to expand or restrict slavery. With the of, the first president from the largely anti-slavery, conventions in thirteen slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the (the 'South'), while the federal government (the ') maintained that secession was illegal. In order to bring about this secession, military action was initiated by the secessionists, and the Union responded in kind.
The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately 618,000 soldiers as well as many civilians. The South fought for the freedom to own slaves, while the Union at first simply fought to maintain the country as one united whole. Nevertheless, as casualties mounted after 1863 and Lincoln delivered his, the main purpose of the war from the Union's viewpoint became the abolition of slavery. Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April 1865, each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the, which prohibited slavery. Were added to the U.S.
Constitution in the years after the war: the aforementioned Thirteenth as well as the providing citizenship to the nearly four million who had been slaves, and the ensuring in theory that African Americans had the right to vote. The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the South while guaranteeing the rights of the newly freed slaves. Began in earnest following the war. While President Lincoln attempted to foster friendship and forgiveness between the Union and the former Confederacy, on April 14, 1865, drove a wedge between North and South again. Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans.
They persisted until the, when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the. Southern white Democrats, calling themselves ', took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction. From 1890 to 1910, so-called most blacks and some poor whites throughout the region.
Blacks faced, especially in the South. They also occasionally experienced vigilante violence, including. Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization. United States and its territories at their greatest extent from 1898 to 1902 The end of the further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets. Mainland expansion was completed by the from in 1867. In 1893, pro-American elements in Hawaii the and formed the, which the U.S. In 1898.,, and the were ceded by Spain in the same year, following the.
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists. Like,, and led the nation's progress in,, and industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with playing a notable role. And undertook the widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for street lighting.
Revolutionized the. The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest, and the United States achieved status. These dramatic changes were accompanied by social unrest and the rise of,, and movements. This period eventually ended with the advent of the, which saw significant reforms in many societal areas, including,, regulation of consumer goods, greater to ensure competition and attention to worker conditions. World War I, Great Depression, and World War II. Crowd gathering on after the 1929 crash The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of, in 1914, until 1917 when it joined the war as an 'associated power', alongside the formal, helping to turn the tide against the. In 1919, President took a leading diplomatic role at the and advocated strongly for the U.S.
However, the Senate refused to approve this, and did not ratify the that established the League of Nations. In 1920, the women's rights movement won passage of a granting. The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of for and the invention of early. The prosperity of the ended with the and the onset of the. After his election as president in 1932, responded with the, which included the establishment of the system.
The of millions of African Americans out of the American South began before World War I and extended through the 1960s; whereas the of the mid-1930s impoverished many farming communities and spurred a new wave of western migration. At first effectively neutral during while Germany conquered much of continental Europe, the United States began supplying material to the in March 1941 through the program. On December 7, 1941, the launched a surprise, prompting the United States to join the Allies against the. During the war, the United States was referred as one of the ' of Allies power who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain, the Soviet Union and China. Though the nation lost more than 400,000 soldiers, it emerged from the war with even greater economic and military influence.
The United States played a leading role in the and conferences with the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and other Allies, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization. As an, a 1945 held in produced the, which became active after the war. The United States developed the and used them on Japan; causing the Japanese to on September 2, ending World War II. Parades and celebrations followed in what is known as, or V-J Day. Cold War and civil rights era. President at his ' speech in, Germany on June 12, 1987. After World War II the United States and the jockeyed for power during what became known as the, driven by an ideological divide between and and, according to the school of, a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps.
They dominated the military affairs of, with the U.S. And its allies on one side and the USSR and its allies on the other. Towards the expansion of communist influence. While the U.S. And Soviet Union engaged in and developed powerful nuclear arsenals, the two countries avoided direct military conflict.
The United States often opposed movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored. American troops fought communist and forces in the of 1950–53. The Soviet Union's 1957 launch of the and its 1961 launch of the initiated a ' in which the United States became the first nation to in 1969. A proxy war in Southeast Asia eventually evolved into full American participation, as the. Bravia Sync Software For Pc.
At home, the U.S. Experienced and a and middle class. Construction of an transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades.
Millions moved from farms and to large housing developments. In 1959 became the 50th and last U.S. State added to the country. The growing used to confront segregation and discrimination, with becoming a prominent leader and figurehead.
A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the, sought to end racial discrimination. Meanwhile, a grew which was fueled by,, and the. The launch of a ' expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of and, two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the and. The 1970s and early 1980s saw the onset of. After his election in 1980, President responded to economic stagnation with.
Following the collapse of, he abandoned 'containment' and initiated the more aggressive ' strategy towards the USSR. After a surge in female labor participation over the previous decade, by 1985 the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed. The late 1980s brought a ' in relations with the USSR, and in 1991 finally ended the Cold War. This brought about with the U.S. Unchallenged as the world's dominant superpower.
The concept of, which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War Contemporary history. After the Cold War, the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990, when under, an ally of the United States. Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President launched, a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and, in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy. Originating in, the spread to international academic networks, and then to the public in the 1990s, greatly affecting the global economy, society, and culture. Due to the, stable monetary policy under, and, the 1990s saw the in modern U.S. History, ending in 2001. Beginning in 1994, the U.S.
Entered into the (NAFTA), linking 450 million people producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services. The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico by January 1, 2008.
Trade among the three partners has soared since NAFTA went into force. On, terrorists struck the in New York City and near Washington, D.C., killing nearly 3,000 people. In response, the United States launched the, which included and the 2003–11. In 2007, the Bush administration ordered a major, which successfully reduced violence and led to greater stability in the region. Government policy designed to promote affordable housing, widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance, and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve led to the, which culminated with the, the largest economic contraction in the nation's history since the Great Depression., the first and president, amid the crisis, and subsequently passed and the in an attempt to mitigate its negative effects and ensure there would not be a repeat of the crisis. The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements and a relative decline in unemployment.
Dodd-Frank improved financial stability and consumer protection, although there is evidence it may have had a negative impact on small banks. In 2010, the Obama administration passed the, which made the most sweeping reforms to the in nearly five decades, including, and. The law caused a significant reduction in the number and percentage of people without health insurance, with 24 million covered during 2016, but remains controversial due to its impact on healthcare costs, insurance premiums, and economic performance. Although the recession reached its trough in June 2009, voters remained frustrated with the slow pace of the economic recovery. The Republicans, who stood in opposition to Obama's policies, won control of the House of Representatives with and control of the Senate in. American forces in Iraq were in large numbers in 2009 and 2010, and the war in the region was declared formally over in December 2011.
The withdrawal caused, leading to the rise of the, the successor of al-Qaeda in the region. In 2014, Obama announced a of full for the first time since 1961. [ ] The next year, the United States as a member of the countries signed the, an agreement aimed to slow the development of.
Geography, climate, and environment. The land area of the is 2,959,064 square miles (7,663,940.6 km 2).
Alaska, separated from the contiguous United States by Canada, is the largest state at 663,268 square miles (1,717,856.2 km 2)., occupying an archipelago in the central, southwest of North America, is 10,931 square miles (28,311 km 2) in area. The populated territories of,,,, and together cover 9,185 square miles (23,789 km 2). Measured by only land area, the United States is third in size behind Russia and China, just ahead of Canada. The United States is the world's third- or fourth- (land and water), ranking behind Russia and Canada and just above or below. The ranking varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and are counted and how the total size of the United States is measured: calculations range from 3,676,486 square miles (9,522,055.0 km 2) to 3,717,813 square miles (9,629,091.5 km 2) to 3,796,742 square miles (9,833,516.6 km 2). The coastal plain of the seaboard gives way further inland to forests and the rolling hills of the. The divide the eastern seaboard from the and the grasslands of the.
The –, the world's, runs mainly north–south through the heart of the country. The flat, fertile of the stretches to the west, interrupted by in the southeast. The, at the western edge of the Great Plains, extend north to south across the country, reaching altitudes higher than 14,000 feet (4,300 m) in. Farther west are the rocky and deserts such as the and. The and mountain ranges run close to the, both ranges reaching altitudes higher than 14,000 feet (4,300 m). The in the United States are in the state of, and only about 84 miles (135 km) apart. At an elevation of 20,310 feet (6,190.5 m), Alaska's (Mount McKinley) is the highest peak in the country and North America.
Active are common throughout Alaska's and, and Hawaii consists of volcanic islands. The underlying in the is the continent's largest volcanic feature. The United States has the most ecoregions out of any country in the world. The United States, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types. To the east of the, the climate ranges from in the north to in the south. The Great Plains west of the 100th meridian are semi-arid. Much of the Western mountains have an.
The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, in, and in coastal and and southern Alaska. Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of are tropical, as are the populated territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific. Extreme weather is not uncommon—the states bordering the are prone to, and most of the world's occur within the country, mainly in areas in the Midwest and South.
The has been the of the United States since 1782. Ecology is: about 17,000 species of occur in the contiguous United States and Alaska, and over 1,800 species of are found in Hawaii, few of which occur on the mainland.
The United States is home to 428 mammal species, 784 bird species, 311 reptile species, and 295 amphibian species. About 91,000 insect species have been described. The is both the and of the United States, and is an enduring symbol of the country itself.
There are 59 and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and areas. Altogether, the government owns about 28% of the country's land area. Most of this is, though some is leased for oil and gas drilling, mining, logging, or cattle ranching; about.86% is used for military purposes. Have been on the national agenda since 1970. Environmental controversies include debates on oil and, dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting wildlife, logging and, and international responses to global warming.
Many federal and state agencies are involved. The most prominent is the (EPA), created by presidential order in 1970. The idea of wilderness has shaped the management of public lands since 1964, with the Wilderness Act. The of 1973 is intended to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, which are monitored by the. Main articles:,,, and Population Historical population Census Pop.%± 3,929,214 — 5,308,483 35.1% 7,239,881 36.4% 9,638,453 33.1% 12,866,020 33.5% 17,069,453 32.7% 23,191,876 35.9% 31,443,321 35.6% 38,558,371 22.6% 50,189,209 30.2% 62,979,766 25.5% 76,212,168 21.0% 92,228,496 21.0% 106,021,537 15.0% 123,202,624 16.2% 132,164,569 7.3% 151,325,798 14.5% 179,323,175 18.5% 203,211,926 13.3% 226,545,805 11.5% 248,709,873 9.8% 281,421,906 13.2% 308,745,538 9.7% Est. 2016 323,127,513 4.7% 1610–1780 population data.
Note that the census numbers do not include until 1860. The estimated the country's population to be 323,425,550 as of April 25, 2016, and to be adding 1 person (net gain) every 13 seconds, or about 6,646 people per day.
Population almost quadrupled during the 20th century, from about 76 million in 1900. The third most populous nation in the world, after and, the United States is the only major industrialized nation in which large population increases are projected.
In the 1800s the average woman had 7.04 children, by the 1900s this number had decreased to 3.56. Since the early 1970s the birth rate has been below the replacement rate of 2.1 with 1.86 children per woman in 2014. Foreign born immigration has caused the US population to continue its rapid increase with the foreign born population doubling from almost 20 million in 1990 to over 40 million in 2010, representing one third of the population increase.
The foreign born population reached 45 million in 2015. The United States has a birth rate of 13 per 1,000, which is 5 births below the world average. Its rate is positive at 0.7%,. In fiscal year 2015, over one million (most of whom entered through ) were granted. Has been the leading source of new residents since the.
China, India, and the have been in the top four sending countries every year since the 1990s. As of 2012, approximately 11.4 million residents are. As of 2015, 47% of all immigrants are Hispanic, 26% are Asian, 18% are white and 8% are black. The percentage of immigrants who are Asian is increasing while the percentage who are Hispanic is decreasing. (as defined by the Census Bureau as all those beside non-Hispanic, non-multiracial ) constituted 37.2% of the population in 2012 and over 50% of children under age one, and are projected to constitute the majority by 2044. According to a survey conducted by the Williams Institute, nine million Americans, or roughly 3.4% of the adult population identify themselves as,,. A 2016 poll also concluded that 4.1% of adult Americans identified as.
The highest percentage came from the District of Columbia (10%), while the lowest state was North Dakota at 1.7%. In a 2013 survey, the found that 96.6% of Americans identify as straight, while 1.6% identify as gay or lesbian, and 0.7% identify as being bisexual. In 2010, the U.S. Population included an estimated 5.2 million people with some or ancestry (2.9 million exclusively of such ancestry) and 1.2 million with some or ancestry (0.5 million exclusively).
The census counted more than 19 million people of 'Some Other Race' who were 'unable to identify with any' of its five official race categories in 2010, over 18.5 million (97%) of whom are of Hispanic ethnicity. The population growth of (the terms are officially interchangeable) is a major.
The 50.5 million Americans of Hispanic descent are identified as sharing a distinct ' by the Census Bureau; 64% of Hispanic Americans are of. Between 2000 and 2010, the country's Hispanic population increased 43% while the non-Hispanic population rose just 4.9%. Much of this growth is from immigration; in 2007, 12.6% of the U.S. Population was, with 54% of that figure born in. About 82% of Americans live in (including suburbs); about half of those reside in cities with populations over 50,000. The US has numerous clusters of cities known as megaregions, the largest being the followed by the and. In 2008, 273 had populations over 100,000, nine cities had more than one million residents, and four had over two million (,,, and ).
There are 52 with populations greater than one million. Of the 50 fastest-growing metro areas, 47 are in the West or South. The metro areas of,, Houston,, and all grew by more than a million people between 2000 and 2008.
See also:,, and () is the. Although there is no at the federal level, some laws—such as —standardize English. In 2010, about 230 million, or 80% of the population aged five years and older, spoke only English at home., spoken by 12% of the population at home, is the second most common language and the most widely taught second language. Some Americans advocate making English the country's official language, as it is in 32 states. Both and English are official languages in, by state law.
Recognizes as well as English. While neither has an official language, has laws providing for the use of both English and Spanish, as does for English and.
Other states, such as, mandate the publication of Spanish versions of certain government documents including court forms. Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English: and are recognized by and, respectively; and Chamorro are recognized by the; Spanish is an official language of and is more widely spoken than English there. The in the United States, in terms of enrollment numbers from kindergarten through university undergraduate studies, are: Spanish (around 7.2 million students), French (1.5 million), and (500,000). Other commonly taught languages (with 100,000 to 250,000 learners) include,,,, and. 18% of all Americans claim to speak at least one language in addition to English. Languages spoken at home by more than 1 million persons in the U.S.
(2016) Language Percent of population Number of speakers Number who speak English very well Number who speak English less than very well (only) ~80% 237,810,023 N/A N/A (including but excluding ) 13% 40,489,813 23,899,421 16,590,392 (all varieties, including and ) 1.0% 3,372,930 1,518,619 1,854,311 (including ) 0.5% 1,701,960 1,159,211 542,749 0.4% 1,509,993 634,273 875,720 (all varieties) 0.3% 1,231,098 770,882 460,216 (including and ) 0.3% 1,216,668 965,584 251,087 0.2% 1,088,788 505,734 583,054 Religion. The of the U.S.
Constitution guarantees the of religion and forbids Congress from passing laws respecting its. Is by far the most common religion practiced in the U.S., but other religions are followed, too.
In a 2013 survey, 56% of Americans said that religion played a 'very important role in their lives', a far higher figure than that of any other wealthy nation. In a 2009 Gallup poll, 42% of Americans said that they attended church weekly or almost weekly; the figures ranged from a low of 23% in to a high of 63% in Mississippi. Experts, researchers and authors have referred to the United States as a 'Protestant nation' or 'founded on Protestant principles,' specifically emphasizing its heritage. As with other Western countries, the U.S. Is becoming less religious. Is growing rapidly among Americans under 30. Polls show that overall American confidence in organized religion has been declining since the mid to late 1980s, and that younger Americans in particular are becoming increasingly irreligious.
According to a 2012 study, the Protestant share of the U.S. Population had dropped to 48%, thus ending its status as religious category of the majority for the first time. Americans with no religion have 1.7 children compared to 2.2 among Christians. The unaffiliated are less likely to get married with 37% marrying compared to 52% of Christians.
According to a 2014 survey, 70.6% of adults in the United States identified themselves as; accounted for 46.5% of them, while, at 20.8%, formed the largest single religious group. In 2014, 5.9% of the U.S. Adult population claimed a non-Christian religion.
These include (1.9%), (0.9%), (0.7%), and (0.7%). The survey also reported that 22.8% of Americans described themselves as, or simply having —up from 8.2% in 1990. There are also,,,,,,,,,,, and communities. Is the largest Christian religious grouping in the United States, accounting for almost half of all Americans. Collectively form the largest branch of Protestantism at 15.4%, and the is the largest individual Protestant denomination at 5.3% of the U.S. In the United States has its origin in immigration from and. And are the only states where a plurality of the population is Lutheran.
Was introduced in North America by and immigrants. Although it has expanded across the country, it is heavily concentrated on the East Coast. Congregations were founded first in (New York City) before spreading westward. Other Protestant traditions with a more dispersed membership include,,, unspecified Protestants, /,,,,, various,,, and. In the United States has its origin primarily in the and colonization of the Americas, as well as in the English. It later grew because of Irish, Italian, Polish, German and Hispanic immigration.
Has the highest percentage of Catholics, with 40 percent of the total population. Is the only state where is the religion of the majority of the population. The also extends to parts of, and. Is claimed by 5% of people in, a former, and maintains a presence on the U.S.
Mainland due to recent immigration from. Finally, a number of other Christian groups are active across the country, including the,,, and. The is an informal term for a region in the in which socially conservative Evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average.
By contrast, religion plays the least important role in and in the. Family structure.
Main article: As of 2007, 58% of Americans age 18 and over were married, 6% were widowed, 10% were divorced, and 25% had never been married. Women now work mostly outside the home and receive a majority of. Rate is 26.5 per 1,000 women. The rate has declined by 57% since 1991.
In 2013, the highest teenage birth rate was in, and the lowest in. Is legal throughout the U.S., owing to, a 1973 by the.
While the abortion rate is falling, the abortion ratio of 241 per 1,000 live births and abortion rate of 15 per 1,000 women aged 15–44 remain higher than those of most Western nations. In 2013, the average age at first birth was 26 and 40.6% of births were to unmarried women. The (TFR) was estimated for 2013 at 1.86 births per woman. Is common and relatively easy from a legal point of view (compared to other Western countries). In 2001, with over 127,000 adoptions, the U.S. Accounted for nearly half of the total number of adoptions worldwide. Is legal nationwide and it is legal for same-sex is illegal throughout the U.S.
Government and politics. Where the sits The United States is the world's oldest surviving. It is a, 'in which is tempered by protected by '. The government is regulated by a system of defined by the U.S. Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. For 2016, the U.S. Ranked 21st on the (tied with ) and 18th on the.
In the, citizens are usually subject to: federal, state, and local. The 's duties are commonly split between and. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a of citizens by district. There is no at the federal level, and it is rare at lower levels.
The federal government is composed of three branches: •: The, made up of the and the, makes,, approves treaties, has the, and has the power of, by which it can remove sitting members of the government. •: is the of the military, can veto before they become law (subject to Congressional override), and appoints the (subject to Senate approval) and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies. •: The and lower, whose judges are appointed by the President with Senate approval, interpret laws and overturn those they find. The House of Representatives has 435 voting members, each representing a for a two-year term. House seats are among the states by population every tenth year.
At the, seven states had the minimum of one representative, while California, the most populous state, had 53. The Senate has 100 members with each state having two senators, elected to six-year terms; one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year. The President serves a four-year term and may be elected to the office. The President is, but by an indirect system in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the.
The Supreme Court, led by the, has nine members, who serve for life. The state governments are structured in roughly similar fashion; uniquely has a legislature.
The (chief executive) of each state is directly elected. Some state judges and cabinet officers are appointed by the governors of the respective states, while others are elected by popular vote. The original text of the Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual states. Protects the right to the 'great writ' of.
The Constitution has been amended 27 times; the first ten amendments, which make up the, and the form the central basis of Americans' individual rights. All laws and governmental procedures are subject to and any law ruled by the courts to be in violation of the Constitution is voided. The principle of judicial review, not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, was established by the Supreme Court in (1803) in a decision handed down. Political divisions. Map of U.S., highlighting states, territories and possessions The United States is a federal republic of 50 states, a federal district, five territories and eleven uninhabited island possessions.
The states and territories are the principal administrative districts in the country. These are divided into subdivisions of counties and independent cities. The District of Columbia is a federal district that contains the capital of the United States, Washington DC. The states and the District of Columbia choose the President of the United States.
Each state has presidential electors equal to the number of their Representatives and Senators in Congress; the District of Columbia has three. Congressional Districts are reapportioned among the states following each decennial Census of Population. Each state then draws single member districts to conform with the census apportionment. The total number of Representatives is 435, and delegate Members of Congress represent the District of Columbia and the five major U.S.
The United States also observes of the American Indian nations to a limited degree, as it does with the states' sovereignty. American Indians are U.S. Citizens and tribal lands are subject to the jurisdiction of the U.S.
Congress and the federal courts. Like the states they have a great deal of autonomy, but also like the states, tribes are not allowed to make war, engage in their own foreign relations, or print and issue currency. 14, 1819 •: Jan. 3, 1959 •: Feb. 14, 1912 •: Jun. 15, 1836 •: Sep.
9, 1850 •: Aug. 1, 1876 •: Jan. 9, 1788 •: Dec. 7, 1787 •: Mar.
3, 1845 •: Jan. 2, 1788 •: Aug.
21, 1959 •: Jul. 3, 1890 •: Dec. 3, 1818 •: Dec.
11, 1816 •: Dec. 28, 1846 •: Jan.
29, 1861 •: Jun. 1, 1792 •: Apr. 30, 1812 •: Mar. 15, 1820 •: Apr. 28, 1788 •: Feb. 6, 1788 •: Jan.
26, 1837 •: May 11, 1858 •: Dec. 10, 1817 •: Aug. 10, 1821 •: Nov. 8, 1889 •: Mar. 1, 1867 •: Oct.
31, 1864 •: Jun. 21, 1788 •: Dec. 18, 1787 •: Jan. 6, 1912 •: Jul. 26, 1788 •: Nov. 21, 1789 •: Nov. 2, 1889 •: Mar.
1, 1803 •: Nov. 16, 1907 •: Feb. 14, 1859 •: Dec. 12, 1787 •: May 29, 1790 •: May 23, 1788 •: Nov. 2, 1889 •: Jun. 1, 1796 •: Dec.
29, 1845 •: Jan. 4, 1896 •: Mar. 4, 1791 •: Jun. 25, 1788 •: Nov. 11, 1889 •: Jun.
20, 1863 •: May 29, 1848 •: Jul. 7, 1787: • Dec. 12, 1787: • Dec. 18, 1787: • Jan. 2, 1788: • Jan.
9, 1788: • Feb. 6, 1788: • Apr. 28, 1788: • May 23, 1788: • Jun. 21, 1788: • Jun. 25, 1788: • Jul. 26, 1788: • Nov. 21, 1789: • May 29, 1790: • Mar.
4, 1791: • Jun. 1, 1792: • Jun. 1, 1796: • Mar.
1, 1803: • Apr. 30, 1812: • Dec. 11, 1816: • Dec. 10, 1817: • Dec. 3, 1818: • Dec. 14, 1819: • Mar.
15, 1820: • Aug. 10, 1821: • Jun. 15, 1836: • Jan. 26, 1837: • Mar. 3, 1845: • Dec. 29, 1845: • Dec. 28, 1846: • May 29, 1848: • Sep.
9, 1850: • May 11, 1858: • Feb. 14, 1859: • Jan. 29, 1861: • Jun. 20, 1863: • Oct.
31, 1864: • Mar. 1, 1867: • Aug. 1, 1876: • Nov. 2, 1889: • Nov. 2, 1889: • Nov.
8, 1889: • Nov. 11, 1889: • Jul. 3, 1890: • Jul. 10, 1890: • Jan. 4, 1896: • Nov. 16, 1907: • Jan. 6, 1912: • Feb.
14, 1912: • Jan. 3, 1959: • Aug. The United States has operated under a for most of its history. For elective offices at most levels, state-administered choose the major party for subsequent. Since the, the major parties have been the,, and the,. Since the Civil War, only one presidential candidate—former president, running as a in —has won as much as 20% of the popular vote.
The President and Vice-president are elected through the system. Within American, the Republican Party is considered ' and the Democratic Party is considered '. The states of the and and some of the Great Lakes states, known as ', are relatively liberal. The ' of the and parts of the and are relatively conservative., the winner of the, is serving as the 45th. Leadership in the Senate includes Republican Vice President, Republican President Pro Tempore,, and Minority Leader. Leadership in the House includes Speaker of the House,, and Minority Leader. In the, both the and the are controlled by the Republican Party.
The Senate consists of 52 Republicans, and 46 Democrats with 2 who caucus with the Democrats; the House consists of 241 Republicans and 194 Democrats. In state governorships, there are 33 Republicans, 16 Democrats, and 1 Independent. Among the DC mayor and the 5 territorial governors, there are 2 Republicans, 1 Democrat, 1, and 2 Independents. Foreign relations. The was built in in 1952.
The United States has an established structure of foreign relations. It is a permanent member of the, and New York City is home to the. It is a member of the,, and. Almost all countries have in Washington, D.C., and many have around the country. Likewise, nearly all nations host. However,,,, and the (Taiwan) do not have formal diplomatic relations with the United States (although the U.S. Still maintains relations with Taiwan and supplies it with ).
The United States has a ' with the and strong ties with,,,,,,, and several countries, including,,, and. It works closely with fellow members on military and security issues and with its neighbors through the and such as the trilateral with Canada and.
In 2008, the United States spent a net $25.4 billion on, the most in the world. As a share of America's large (GNI), however, the U.S.
Contribution of 0.18% ranked last among 22 donor states. By contrast, private overseas giving by Americans is relatively generous. Exercises full international defense authority and responsibility for three sovereign nations through with, the and. These are Pacific island nations, once part of the U.S.-administered after World War II, which gained independence in subsequent years. On October 25, 2017, Vice President Mike Pence announced at a In Defense of Christians annual dinner meeting in Washington that the United States would stop funding United Nations relief efforts, cases tackling the persecution of Christians in the Middle East, but insisted that the U.S. Would instead help and aid Christians directly through the.
Pence said that he will be visiting the Middle East in December and will meet with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas to discuss peace agreements. Government finance. US federal debt held by the public as a percentage of GDP, from 1790 to 2013. Are levied at the federal, state, and local government levels. These include taxes on income, payroll, property, sales, imports, estates and gifts, as well as various fees.
In 2010 taxes collected by federal, state and municipal governments amounted to 24.8% of. During FY2012, the federal government collected approximately $2.45 trillion in tax revenue, up $147 billion or 6% versus FY2011 revenues of $2.30 trillion.
Primary receipt categories included individual income taxes ($1,132B or 47%), Social Security/Social Insurance taxes ($845B or 35%), and corporate taxes ($242B or 10%). Based on CBO estimates, under 2013 tax law the top 1% will be paying the highest average tax rates since 1979, while other income groups will remain at historic lows. Taxation is generally, especially the federal income taxes, and is among the most progressive in the developed world. The highest 10% of income earners pay a majority of federal taxes, and about half of all taxes.
Payroll taxes for Social Security are a flat, with no tax charged on income above $118,500 (for 2015 and 2016) and no tax at all paid on from things such as stocks and capital gains. The historic reasoning for the regressive nature of the payroll tax is that entitlement programs have not been viewed as welfare transfers. However, according to the the net effect of Social Security is that the benefit to tax ratio ranges from roughly 70% for the top earnings quintile to about 170% for the lowest earning quintile, making the system progressive. The top 10% paid 51.8% of total federal taxes in 2009, and the top 1%, with 13.4% of pre-tax national income, paid 22.3% of federal taxes. In 2013 the Tax Policy Center projected total federal effective tax rates of 35.5% for the top 1%, 27.2% for the top quintile, 13.8% for the middle quintile, and −2.7% for the bottom quintile.
The of has been a matter of considerable ongoing controversy for decades. State and local taxes vary widely, but are generally less progressive than federal taxes as they rely heavily on broadly borne sales and property taxes that yield less volatile revenue streams, though their consideration does not eliminate the progressive nature of overall taxation. During FY 2012, the federal government spent $3.54 trillion on a budget or cash basis, down $60 billion or 1.7% vs.
FY 2011 spending of $3.60 trillion. Major categories of FY 2012 spending included: Medicare & Medicaid ($802B or 23% of spending), Social Security ($768B or 22%), Defense Department ($670B or 19%), non-defense discretionary ($615B or 17%), other mandatory ($461B or 13%) and interest ($223B or 6%). The total in the United States was $18.527 trillion (106% of the GDP) in 2014. The of the,, and with aircraft from the,, and. The President holds the title of of the nation's armed forces and appoints its leaders, the and the. The administers the armed forces, including the,,, and. The is run by the in peacetime and by the during times of war.
In 2008, the armed forces had 1.4 million personnel on active duty. The and brought the total number of troops to 2.3 million. The Department of Defense also employed about 700,000 civilians, not including contractors. Military service is voluntary, though may occur in wartime through the.
American forces can be rapidly deployed by the Air Force's large fleet of transport aircraft, the Navy's 11 active, and at sea with the Navy's. The military operates 865 bases and facilities abroad, and maintains in 25 foreign countries. The in 2011 was more than $700 billion, 41% of global military spending and equal to the next 14 largest national military expenditures combined. At 4.7% of GDP, the rate was the second-highest among the top 15 military spenders, after. Defense spending as a percentage of GDP ranked 23rd globally in 2012 according to the CIA.
Defense's share of U.S. Spending has generally declined in recent decades, from Cold War peaks of 14.2% of GDP in 1953 and 69.5% of federal outlays in 1954 to 4.7% of GDP and 18.8% of federal outlays in 2011. Law enforcement in the U.S. Is maintained primarily by local police departments. Law enforcement in the United States is primarily the responsibility of local police and 's departments, with providing broader services.
The (NYPD) is the largest in the country. Federal agencies such as the (FBI) and the have specialized duties, including protecting, and enforcing ' rulings and federal laws. At the federal level and in almost every state, a legal system operates on a. State courts conduct most criminal trials; handle certain designated crimes as well as certain appeals from the state criminal courts. Is very common; the vast majority of criminal cases in the country are settled by rather than.
In 2015, there were 15,696 murders which was 1,532 more than in 2014, a 10.8 per cent increase, the largest since 1971. The murder rate in 2015 was 4.9 per 100,000 people. In 2016 the murder rate increased by 8.6%, with 17,250 murders that year.
The national for homicides in 2015 was 64.1%, compared to 90% in 1965. In 2012 there were 4.7 murders per 100,000 persons in the United States, a 54% decline from the modern peak of 10.2 in 1980. In 2001–2, the United States had above-average levels of violent crime and particularly high levels of compared to other developed nations. A cross-sectional analysis of the Mortality Database from 2010 showed that United States 'homicide rates were 7.0 times higher than in other high-income countries, driven by a gun homicide rate that was 25.2 times higher.'
Continue to be the subject of. From 1980 through 2008 males represented 77% of homicide victims and 90% of offenders. Blacks committed 52.5% of all homicides during that span, at a rate almost eight times that of whites ('whites' includes most Hispanics), and were victimized at a rate six times that of whites. Most homicides were intraracial, with 93% of black victims killed by blacks and 84% of white victims killed by whites. In 2012, Louisiana had the highest rate of murder and non-negligent manslaughter in the U.S., and New Hampshire the lowest.
The FBI's estimates that there were 3,246 violent and property crimes per 100,000 residents in 2012, for a total of over 9 million total crimes. Is sanctioned in the United States for certain federal and military crimes, and used in 31 states. No executions took place from 1967 to 1977, owing in part to a striking down arbitrary imposition of the death penalty. In 1976, that Court ruled that, under appropriate circumstances, capital punishment may constitutionally be imposed. Since the decision there have been more than 1,300 executions, a majority of these taking place in three states: Texas, Virginia, and. Meanwhile, have either abolished or struck down death penalty laws.
In 2015, the country had the fifth-highest number of executions in the world, following China,, and. The United States has the and in the world. At the start of 2008, more than 2.3 million people were incarcerated, more than one in every 100 adults.
In December 2012, the combined U.S. Adult correctional systems supervised about 6,937,600 offenders.
About 1 in every 35 adult residents in the United States was under some form of correctional supervision in December 2012, the lowest rate observed since 1997. The prison population has quadrupled since 1980, and state and local spending on prisons and jails has grown three times as much as that spent on public education during the same period. However, the imprisonment rate for all prisoners sentenced to more than a year in state or federal facilities is 478 per 100,000 in 2013 and the rate for pre-trial/remand prisoners is 153 per 100,000 residents in 2012. The country's high rate of incarceration is largely due to changes in and.
According to the, the majority of inmates held in federal prisons are convicted of drug offenses. The and prison services which began in the 1980s has been a subject of debate. In 2008, Louisiana, and Maine the lowest. United States export treemap (2011): The U.S. Is the world's second-largest exporter. The United States has a which is fueled by abundant and high productivity. According to the, the U.S.
Kienzle Argo Taxi Meter Manual Download Free. GDP of $16.8 trillion constitutes 24% of the at market exchange rates and over 19% of the gross world product at (PPP). The nominal GDP of the U.S.
Is estimated to be $17.528 trillion as of 2014 From 1983 to 2008, U.S. Real compounded annual GDP growth was 3.3%, compared to a 2.3% weighted average for the rest of the.
The country ranks ninth in the world in (first in the Americas) and sixth in. The is the world's primary. Economy is also the fastest growing in the Americas. The United States is the of goods and, though are relatively low.
In 2010, the total was $635 billion.,,,, and are its top trading partners. In 2010, oil was the largest import commodity, while transportation equipment was the country's largest export. Japan is the largest foreign holder of U.S. The largest holder of the U.S. Debt are American entities, including federal government accounts and the, who hold the majority of the debt. In 2009, the private sector was estimated to constitute 86.4% of the economy, with federal government activity accounting for 4.3% and state and local government activity (including federal transfers) the remaining 9.3%. The number of employees at all levels of government outnumber those in by 1.7 to 1.
While its economy has reached a level of development and its constitutes 67.8% of GDP, the United States remains an industrial power. The leading business field by gross business receipts is wholesale and retail trade; by net income it is manufacturing. In the business model, and are the two most recognized brands in the world. Is the most recognized company in the world. Chemical products are the leading manufacturing field.
The United States is the largest producer of oil in the world, as well as its second-largest importer. It is the world's number one producer of electrical and nuclear energy, as well as,, phosphates, and.
The provides data pertaining to and that include,,,,, and others. Accounts for just under 1% of GDP, yet the United States is the world's top producer of corn and soybeans. The maintains agricultural statistics for products that include,,,,,,,,,, and.
In addition, the (USDA) provides livestock statistics regarding,,, and. The country is the primary developer and grower of, representing half of the world's biotech. Comprises 68% of the U.S. Economy in 2015. In August 2010, the American labor force consisted of 154.1 million people.
With 21.2 million people, government is the leading field of employment. The largest private employment sector is health care and social assistance, with 16.4 million people.
About 12% of workers are, compared to 30% in. The World Bank ranks the United States first in the ease of hiring and firing workers. The United States is ranked among the top three in the as well. It has a smaller and redistributes less income through government action than European nations tend to. The United States is the only advanced economy that does not and is one of just a few countries in the world without as a legal right, with the others being, and. While federal law does not require sick leave, it is a common benefit for government workers and full-time employees at corporations. 74% of full-time American workers get paid sick leave, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, although only 24% of part-time workers get the same benefits.
In 2009, the United States had the third-highest per person in the world, behind and. It was fourth in productivity per hour, behind those two countries and the. The significantly affected the United States, with output still below potential according to the. It brought high (which has been decreasing but remains above pre-recession levels), along with low, the, an escalating federal debt crisis,, and.
Income, poverty and wealth. Further information:,,,, and Americans have the highest average and income among OECD nations, and in 2007 had the second-highest. According to the Census Bureau, median household income was $59,039 in 2016. Accounting for 4.4% of the global population, Americans collectively possess 41.6% of the world's total wealth, and Americans make up roughly half of the world's population of millionaires. The ranked the U.S.
Number one for food affordability and overall food security in March 2013. Americans on average have over twice as much living space per dwelling and per person as residents, and more than every EU nation. For 2013 the ranked the United States 5th among 187 countries in its and 28th in its (IHDI). After years of stagnant growth, in 2016, according to the Census, median household income reached a record high after two consecutive years of record growth, although income inequality remains at record highs with top fifth of earners taking home more than half of all overall income. There has been a widening gap between productivity and median incomes since the 1970s. However, the gap between total compensation and productivity is not as wide because of increased employee benefits such as health insurance. The rise in the share of total annual income received by the top 1 percent, which has more than doubled from 9 percent in 1976 to 20 percent in 2011, has significantly affected, leaving the United States with one of the widest income distributions among OECD nations.
The accounted for 52 percent of the income gains from 2009 to 2015, where income is defined as market income excluding government transfers, The extent and relevance of income inequality is a matter of debate. [ – ] United States' families median net worth source: Fed Survey of Consumer Finances in 2013 dollars 1998 2013 change All families $102,500 $81,200 -20.8% Bottom 20% of incomes $8,300 $6,100 -26.5% 2nd lowest 20% of incomes $47,400 $22,400 -52.7% Middle 20% of incomes $76,300 $61,700 -19.1% Top 10% $646,600 $1,130,700 +74.9%, like income and taxes, is; the richest 10% of the adult population possess 72% of the country's household wealth, while the bottom half claim only 2%. According to a September 2017 report by the Federal Reserve, the top 1% controlled 38.6% of the country's wealth in 2016. Between June 2007 and November 2008 the led to falling asset prices around the world. Assets owned by Americans lost about a quarter of their value. Since peaking in the second quarter of 2007, household wealth was down $14 trillion, but has since increased $14 trillion over 2006 levels.
At the end of 2014, amounted to $11.8 trillion, down from $13.8 trillion at the end of 2008. There were about 578,424 sheltered and unsheltered in January 2014, with almost two-thirds staying in an emergency shelter or transitional housing program. In 2011, about 35% more than 2007 levels, though only 1.1% of U.S.
Children, or 845,000, saw reduced food intake or disrupted eating patterns at some point during the year, and most cases were not chronic. According to a 2014 report by the Census Bureau, one in five young adults lives in, up from one in seven in 1980.
As of September 2017, 40 million people, roughly 12.7% of the U.S. Population, were living in poverty, with 18.5 million of those living in deep poverty (a family income below one-half of the poverty threshold).
In 2016, 13.3 million children were living in poverty, which made up 32.6% of the impoverished population. Infrastructure Transportation. The, which extends 46,876 miles (75,440 km). Personal transportation is dominated by automobiles, which operate on a network of 4 million miles (6.4 million km) of public roads, including one of the world's at 57,000 miles (91700 km). The world's second-largest automobile market, the United States has the highest rate of per-capita vehicle ownership in the world, with 765 vehicles per 1,000 Americans. About 40% of are vans,, or light trucks. The average American adult (accounting for all drivers and non-drivers) spends 55 minutes driving every day, traveling 29 miles (47 km).
Map showing current in the United States.. Is extensive, though relatively low numbers of passengers (approximately 31 million annually) use intercity rail to travel, partly because of the low population density throughout much of the U.S. However, ridership on, the national intercity passenger, grew by almost 37% between 2000 and 2010. Also, has increased in recent years. Bicycle usage for work commutes is minimal. The is entirely privately owned and has been largely, while are publicly owned. The three largest airlines in the world by passengers carried are U.S.-based; is number one after its 2013 acquisition.
Of the, 16 are in the United States, including the busiest,, and the fourth-busiest, in. In the aftermath of the of 2001, the was created to police airports and commercial airliners. Power transmission grid consists of about 300,000 km (190,000 mi) of lines operated by approximately 500 companies. The (NERC) oversees all of them. The market is about 29,000 per year. Is 7.8 tons (7076 kg) of oil equivalent per year, the 10th-highest rate in the world. In 2005, 40% of this energy came from petroleum, 23% from coal, and 22% from natural gas.
The remainder was supplied by nuclear power and sources. The United States is the world's largest consumer of petroleum. The United States has 27% of global coal reserves. It is the world's largest producer of natural gas and crude oil.
For decades, has played a limited role relative to many other developed countries, in part because of public perception in the wake of a. In 2007, several applications for new nuclear plants were filed.
Water supply and sanitation. The, founded by in 1819, is one of the many public universities in the United States. Universal government-funded education exists in the United States, while there are also many privately funded institutions.
American is operated by state and local governments, regulated by the through restrictions on federal grants. In most states, children are required to attend school from the age of six or seven (generally, or ) until they turn 18 (generally bringing them through, the end of ); some states allow students to leave school at 16 or 17.
About 12% of children are enrolled in. Just over 2% of children are. Spends more on education per student than any nation in the world, spending more than $11,000 per elementary student in 2010 and more than $12,000 per high school student. Some 80% of U.S. College students attend. The United States has many competitive private and public. The majority of the world's top universities listed by different ranking organizations are in the U.S.
There are also local with generally more open admission policies, shorter academic programs, and lower tuition. Of Americans 25 and older, 84.6% graduated from high school, 52.6% attended some college, 27.2% earned a, and 9.6% earned graduate degrees. The basic rate is approximately 99%.
The United Nations assigns the United States an Education Index of 0.97, tying it for 12th in the world. As for public expenditures on higher education, the U.S. Trails some other nations but spends more per student than the OECD average, and more than all nations in combined public and private spending.
As of 2012, exceeded one trillion dollars, more than Americans owe on credit cards. See also:,,,,, and The United States is home to and a wide variety of ethnic groups, traditions, and values. Aside from the,, and populations, nearly all Americans or their ancestors settled or immigrated within the past five centuries. Mainstream American culture is a largely derived from the with influences from many other sources, such as. More recent immigration from and especially has added to a cultural mix that has been described as both a homogenizing, and a heterogeneous in which immigrants and their descendants retain distinctive cultural characteristics. Core American culture was established by British colonists and shaped by the settlement process, with the traits derived passed down to descendants and transmitted to immigrants through assimilation. Americans have traditionally been characterized by a strong, competitiveness, and individualism, as well as a unifying belief in an 'American ' emphasizing liberty, equality, private property, democracy, rule of law, and a preference for limited government.
Americans are extremely charitable by global standards. According to a 2006 British study, Americans gave 1.67% of GDP to charity, more than any other nation studied, more than twice the second place British figure of 0.73%, and around twelve times the French figure of 0.14%. The, or the perception that Americans enjoy high, plays a key role in attracting immigrants. Whether this perception is realistic has been a topic of debate.
While mainstream culture holds that the United States is a, scholars identify significant differences between the country's social classes, affecting, language, and values. Americans' self-images, social viewpoints, and cultural expectations are associated with their occupations to an unusually close degree. While Americans tend greatly to value socioeconomic achievement, being is generally seen as a positive attribute. Is a food commonly associated with American cuisine.
Mainstream American cuisine is similar to that in other Western countries. Is the primary cereal grain with about three-quarters of grain products made of wheat flour and many dishes use indigenous ingredients, such as turkey, venison, potatoes, sweet potatoes, corn, squash, and maple syrup which were consumed by Native Americans and early European settlers.
These home grown foods are part of a shared national menu on one of America's most popular holidays;, when some Americans make traditional foods to celebrate the occasion. Roasted is a traditional menu item of an American dinner. Characteristic dishes such as apple pie, fried chicken, pizza, hamburgers, and hot dogs derive from the recipes of various immigrants.
French fries, dishes such as burritos and tacos, and pasta dishes freely adapted from sources are widely consumed. Americans drink three times as much coffee as tea. Marketing by U.S. Industries is largely responsible for making orange juice and milk ubiquitous beverages.
American eating habits owe a great deal to that of their roots with some variations. Although American lands could grow newer vegetables that Britain could not, most colonists would not eat these new foods until accepted by Europeans. Over time American foods changed to a point that food critic, stated in 1972: 'Our founding fathers were as far superior to our present political leaders in the quality of their food as they were in the quality of their prose and intelligence'. The American industry, the world's largest, pioneered the format in the 1940s. Fast food consumption has sparked health concerns. During the 1980s and 1990s, Americans' caloric intake rose 24%; frequent dining at fast food outlets is associated with what public health officials call the American '.
Highly sweetened soft drinks are widely popular, and sugared beverages account for nine percent of American caloric intake. Literature, philosophy, and the arts. American author and. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, American art and literature took most of its cues from Europe. Writers such as,, and established a distinctive American literary voice by the middle of the 19th century.
And poet were major figures in the century's second half;, virtually unknown during her lifetime, is now recognized as an essential American poet. A work seen as capturing fundamental aspects of the national experience and character—such as 's (1851), Twain's (1885), 's (1925) and 's (1960)—may be dubbed the '.
Citizens have won the, most recently in 2016., and are often named among the most influential writers of the 20th century. Popular literary genres such as the and crime fiction developed in the United States. The writers opened up new literary approaches, as have authors such as,, and. The, led by Thoreau and, established the first major. After the Civil War, and then and were leaders in the development of. In the 20th century, the work of and, and later, brought to the fore of American philosophical academia.
And led a revival of. And have led a continental tradition in American philosophical academia. Like,, and have affected various fields in social and political philosophy. In the visual arts, the was a mid-19th-century movement in the tradition of European. The realist paintings of are now widely celebrated.
The 1913 in New York City, an exhibition of European, shocked the public and transformed the U.S. Art scene.,, and others experimented with new, individualistic styles. Major artistic movements such as the of and and the of and developed largely in the United States. The tide of modernism and then has brought fame to American architects such as,, and. Americans have long been important in the modern artistic medium of, with major photographers including,, and. In, the hub of the One of the first major promoters of was impresario, who began operating a lower entertainment complex in 1841.
The team of produced a series of popular comedies in New York starting in the late 1870s. In the 20th century, the modern musical form emerged on; the songs of musical theater composers such as,, and have become. Playwright won the Nobel literature prize in 1936; other acclaimed U.S. Dramatists include multiple winners,, and.
Though little known at the time, 's work of the 1910s established him as the first major U.S. Composer in the classical tradition, while experimentalists such as and created a distinctive American approach to classical composition. And developed a new synthesis of popular and classical music. And helped create, while and were leaders in 20th-century ballet. The is awarded to leading music artists. The rhythmic and lyrical styles of have deeply influenced at large, distinguishing it from European traditions. Elements from idioms such as the and what is now known as were adopted and transformed into with global audiences.
Was developed by innovators such as and early in the 20th century. Developed in the 1920s, and in the 1940s. And were among the mid-1950s pioneers of.
In the 1960s, emerged from the to become one of America's most celebrated songwriters and led the development of. More recent American creations include and. American pop stars such as Presley,, and have become global celebrities, as have contemporary musical artists such as,,, and as well as hip hop artists, and. Rock bands such as, the, and are among the in worldwide sales. The in, California, a northern district of, California, is one of the leaders in motion picture production.
The world's first commercial motion picture exhibition was given in New York City in 1894, using 's. The next year saw the first commercial screening of a projected film, also in New York, and the United States was in the forefront of 's development in the following decades. Since the early 20th century, the U.S. Film industry has largely been based in and around Hollywood, although in the 21st century an increasing number of films are not made there, and film companies have been subject to the forces of globalization. Director, the top American during the silent film period, was central to the development of, and producer/entrepreneur was a leader in both and movie. Directors such as redefined the image of the American Old West and history, and, like others such as, broadened the possibilities of cinema with location shooting, with great influence on subsequent directors. The industry enjoyed its golden years, in what is commonly referred to as the ', from the early sound period until the early 1960s, with screen actors such as and becoming iconic figures.
In the 1970s, film directors such as, and were a vital component in what became known as ' or the 'Hollywood Renaissance', grittier films influenced by French and Italian realist pictures of the. Since, directors such as, and have gained renown for their blockbuster films, often characterized by high production costs, and in return, high earnings at the box office, with Cameron's (2009) earning more than $2 billion. Notable films topping the 's list include 's (1941), which is frequently cited as the greatest film of all time, (1942), (1972), (1939), (1962), (1939), (1967), (1954), (1993), (1952), (1946) and (1950). The, popularly known as the Oscars, have been held annually by the since 1929, and the have been held annually since January 1944.
Most popular American sports are,, and is by several measures the most popular spectator sport; the (NFL) has the highest average attendance of any sports league in the world, and the is watched by millions globally. Has been regarded as the U.S. Since the late 19th century, with (MLB) being the top league. And are the country's next two, with the top leagues being the (NBA) and the (NHL). These four major sports, when played professionally, each occupy a season at different, but overlapping, times of the year. And attract large audiences.
In, the country hosted the, the qualified for ten World Cups and the has won the three times; is the sport's highest league in the United States (featuring 19 American and 3 Canadian teams). The market for professional sports in the United States is roughly $69 billion, roughly 50% larger than that of all of Europe, the Middle East, and Africa combined.
Eight have taken place in the United States ( will mark the ninth time). As of 2017, the United States has won 2,522 medals at the, more than any other country, and 282 in the, the second most behind Norway. While most major U.S. Sports have evolved out of European practices,,,, and are American inventions, some of which have become popular in other countries. And arose from Native American and Native Hawaiian activities that predate Western contact.
The most watched are and, particularly. Is considered the fastest growing sport in the U.S., with registered players numbered at 115,000+ and a further 1.2 million participants. The corporate headquarters of the in New York City The four major broadcasters in the U.S. Are the (NBC), (CBS), the (ABC), and. The four major broadcast are all commercial entities.
Offers hundreds of channels catering to a variety of niches. Americans listen to radio programming, also largely commercial, on average just over two-and-a-half hours a day. In 1998, the number of U.S. Commercial radio stations had grown to 4,793 AM stations and 5,662 FM stations. In addition, there are 1,460 public radio stations. Most of these stations are run by universities and public authorities for educational purposes and are financed by public or private funds, subscriptions and corporate underwriting. Much public-radio broadcasting is supplied by (formerly National Public Radio).
NPR was incorporated in February 1970 under the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967; its television counterpart,, was also created by the same legislation. (NPR and PBS are operated separately from each other.) As of September 30, 2014, there are 15,433 licensed full-power radio stations in the U.S. According to the (FCC). Well-known newspapers include The, The, and. Although the cost of publishing has increased over the years, the price of newspapers has generally remained low, forcing newspapers to rely more on advertising revenue and on articles provided by a major wire service, such as the Associated Press or Reuters, for their national and world coverage.
With very few exceptions, all the newspapers in the U.S. Are privately owned, either by large chains such as or, which own dozens or even hundreds of newspapers; by small chains that own a handful of papers; or in a situation that is increasingly rare, by individuals or families.
Major cities often have 'alternative weeklies' to complement the mainstream daily papers, for example, New York City's or Los Angeles', to name two of the best-known. Major cities may also support a local business journal, trade papers relating to local industries, and papers for local ethnic and social groups. Early versions of the American newspaper and the began appearing in the 19th century. In 1938,, the comic book of, developed into an American icon. Aside from and, the most popular websites are,,,,,, and. More than 800 publications are produced in Spanish, the second most commonly used language in the United States behind English. Science and technology.
Astronaut walking on the next to 's and in 1971. The effort to reach the Moon was triggered by the. The United States has been a leader in technological innovation since the late 19th century and scientific research since the mid-20th century. Methods for producing were developed by the U.S. War Department by the Federal Armories during the first half of the 19th century.
This technology, along with the establishment of a industry, enabled the U.S. To have large scale manufacturing of sewing machines, bicycles and other items in the late 19th century and became known as the.
Factory in the early 20th century and introduction of the and other labor saving techniques created the system called. In 1876, was awarded the first U.S.. 's, one of the first of its kind, developed the, the first, and the first viable.
The latter led to emergence of the worldwide. In the early 20th century, the automobile companies of and popularized the. The, in 1903, made the. The rise of and in the 1920s and 1930s led many European scientists, including,, and, to immigrate to the United States. During World War II, the developed nuclear weapons, ushering in the, while the produced rapid advances in rocketry,, and. The invention of the in the 1950s, a key active component in practically all modern, led to many technological developments and a significant expansion of the U.S.
Technology industry. This in turn led to the establishment of many new technology companies and regions around the country such as in California. Advancements by American companies such as (AMD), and along with both computer and companies that include,,,, and created and popularized the.
The was developed in the 1960s to meet requirements, and became the first of a into the. These advancements then lead to greater of technology for individual use. As of 2013, 83.8% of American households owned at least one, and 73.3% had high-speed Internet service. 91% of Americans also own a mobile phone as of May 2013. The United States ranks highly with regard to freedom of use of the internet. In the 21st century, approximately two-thirds of research and development funding comes from the private sector.
The United States leads the world in scientific research papers and. In is one of the world's busiest. Pictured is the facility (white complex at center). The United States has a life expectancy of 79.8 years at birth, up from 75.2 years in 1990. The infant mortality rate of 6.17 per thousand places the United States 56th-lowest out of 224 countries.
Increasing and health improvements elsewhere contributed to lowering the country's rank in life expectancy from 11th in the world in 1987, to 42nd in 2007. Obesity rates have more than doubled in the last 30 years, are the highest in the industrialized world, and are among the highest anywhere. Approximately one-third of the adult population is obese and an additional third is overweight.
Obesity-related is considered epidemic by health care professionals. In 2010,,,,, and traffic accidents caused the most years of life lost in the U.S.
Low back pain,,, neck pain, and caused the most years lost to disability. The most deleterious were poor diet, tobacco smoking, obesity,,,, and alcohol use., drug abuse,, cancer, and falls caused the most additional years of life lost over their age-adjusted 1990 per-capita rates. Teenage pregnancy and abortion rates are substantially higher than in other Western nations, especially among blacks and Hispanics.
Is a global leader in medical innovation. America solely developed or contributed significantly to 9 of the top 10 most important medical innovations since 1975 as ranked by a 2001 poll of physicians, while the European Union and Switzerland together contributed to five. Since 1966, more Americans have received the than the rest of the world combined.
From 1989 to 2002, four times more money was invested in private biotechnology companies in America than in Europe. Health-care system far any other nation, measured in both per capita spending and percentage of GDP. Health-care coverage in the United States is a combination of public and private efforts and is not. In 2014, 13.4% of the population did not carry.
The subject of uninsured and underinsured Americans is a major political issue. In 2006, became the first state to mandate universal health insurance.
Passed in early 2010 would ostensibly create a near-universal health insurance system around the country by 2014, though the bill and its ultimate effect are issues of controversy.
Rodeo Choreographer Music Premiere 16 October 1942, New York City Characters American Cowgirl Champion Roper Head Wrangler Rancher's Daughter Design Setting 19th Century Created for Rodeo is a scored by and choreographed by, which premiered in 1942. Subtitled 'The Courting at Burnt Ranch', the ballet consists of five sections: 'Buckaroo Holiday', 'Corral Nocturne', 'Ranch House Party,' 'Saturday Night Waltz', and 'Hoe-Down'. The symphonic version omits 'Ranch House Party', leaving the other sections relatively intact. Contents • • • • • • • • • • • Genesis [ ] The original ballet was choreographed by for the, a dance company that moved to the United States during.
In order to compete with the rival company, the Ballet Russe commissioned de Mille out of a career of relative obscurity. The choreographer was given considerable creative control, choosing as the composer after being impressed by his previous ballet,. Though Copland was initially reluctant to compose 'another Cowboy ballet,' De Mille persuaded him that this show would mark a significant departure from his previous work. As de Mille found herself occupied with instructing a highly international cast in the mannerisms of American cowboys, Copland recommended that design the sets, in what would prove to be a prescient action. De Mille herself played the lead, and the premiere at the on 16 October 1942 received 22.
The other principal dancers in the cast included and. Though de Mille herself was not entirely pleased with the premiere, it was attended by, who approached de Mille afterward to request that she choreograph their upcoming production of.
The ballet makes use of riding movements that devised with the assistance of, for a recital in London by Peggy van Praagh and in 1938. De Mille also made use of such vernacular forms as a square dance and a cadenza for a tap dancer.
Noted among many reviews was de Mille’s highly evocative, described as 'film sensibility' and renowned for its realism. The original production went on to lead a successful tour, though producers were hard pressed to replicate the skill with which de Mille had portrayed the lead. De Mille retained veto power over any casting of the ballet, which often sent companies to extremes in order to find a worthy Cowgirl. Meanwhile, Copland arranged the music as a symphonic suite for orchestra titled Four Dance Episodes from Rodeo, which consisted chiefly of removing 'Ranch House Party' and minor adjustments to the final two sections.
With the middle section removed, the composition resembled the symphonic form with an ambitious opening movement, slow movement, minuet and finale. In this form, Rodeo found even greater success, premiering at the in 1943. Structure and analysis [ ] The circumstances surrounding the composition of Rodeo led to its having a number of features that set it apart from other Copland compositions.
Though many of Copland's works incorporate traditional American folk tunes, Rodeo is unique in that it leaves them quite intact in the score, with very little alteration on the part of the composer. This is likely attributable in part to De Mille's control over the work. Indeed, she had already blocked the entire show before Copland had written a single note and also transcribed several folk tunes, including 'Old Paint', for Copland in addition to her blocking notes. The well-known main theme of 'Hoe-Down' is based on a unique version of the American 'Bonyparte' or ',' played by Salyersville, Kentucky fiddler, which was recorded in 1937 by for the. A meticulous transcription by of that performance appeared in Lomax's 1941 book, 'Our Singing Country'. Many of the themes were autobiographical for De Mille. An extremely skilled dancer, the choreographer nonetheless felt awkward in the offstage world, and the Cowgirl's unwillingness to subscribe to traditional gender roles mirrors De Mille's experience.
Buckaroo Holiday [ ]. A 25 second sample of the 'Buckaroo Holiday' movement demonstrating the rhythmic motif of the main 'Rodeo' theme.
Problems playing this file? Rodeo opens with a grand fanfare, vamping until R5-6, where the woodwinds introduce the Cowgirl's theme. This quiet theme continues until the Rodeo theme begins presenting a highly rhythmic motif that evokes the trotting of horses. The lone Cowgirl seeks the affections of the Head Wrangler, who is rather taken with the more feminine Rancher's Daughter. The cowboys enter to the railroad tune of 'Sis Joe', envisioned by de Mille as an event 'like thunder,' which Copland obliges with heavy drums and brass. As the cowgirl seeks the attention of her quarry, she mimics the surrounding cowboys, reflected in the heavy use of the tune 'If He’d Be a Buckaroo' in this section. The theme is repeated by various solo instruments before being realized in triple by the full orchestra.
After a brief return to the quiet Cowgirl theme, the fanfare returns. 'Sis Joe' reappears again, before the entire orchestra triumphantly plays 'If He'd be a Buckaroo'. Corral Nocturne [ ]. A 24 second sample of 'Corral Nocturne' demonstrating the lyrical interplay of the oboe and bassoon to create the mood of a lovesick character.
Problems playing this file? The 'Corral Nocturne' invokes the lovesick musings of the Cowgirl, portrayed rather lyrically by Copland's heavy use of oboe and bassoon.
In writing this scene, de Mille noted that 'She run[s] through the empty corrals intoxicated with space, her feet thudding in the stillness.' The Head Wrangler discovers her in the darkness, but she does not come toward him as the Rancher's Daughter would. Confused, he exits with the Rancher's Daughter. Ranch House Party [ ] The subsequent 'Ranch House Party' (ballet only) was envisioned by de Mille as 'Dance music inside. Night music outside.' Indeed, the section opens with a honky-tonk theme played on a piano, accompanied by a more thoughtful clarinet. The Cowgirl finds herself between the Champion Roper and the Wrangler, who are attracted to the Rancher's Daughter.
'Corral Nocturne' is recalled at the end of this section, as the Cowgirl finds herself quite alone. Saturday Night Waltz [ ]. A 16 second sample of 'Saturday Night Waltz' demonstrating the subtle use of single woodwind instruments over a bed of strings to represent the characters. Problems playing this file?
While the 'Texas minuet' of the 'Saturday Night Waltz' plays de Mille’s transcribed version of 'I Ride an Old Paint' (also known as 'Houlihan') the cowboys and their girls pair off. Expectant of a partner and finding none, the Cowgirl is alone until the Champion Roper approaches her, having failed to best the Wrangler in winning the affections of the Rancher's Daughter. Both this section and the 'Corral Nocturne' feature Copland's characteristic economy of sound, where he uses solo instruments in lieu of entire sections. Hoe-Down [ ]. A 20 second sample of 'Hoe-Down' demonstrating the main theme of the movement with the horns providing counterpoint to the main string melody. Problems playing this file?
Finally, the 'Hoe-Down' opens by vamping the first bar of William H. Stepp's interpretation of the folk tune 'Bonaparte’s Retreat', which will become a major theme of the section. After a reprisal of the Rodeo theme, the theme proper begins in the strings, as the horns play a simple counterpoint. Instead of building to a climax, this section segues into 'Miss McLeod's Reel', performed by various solo instruments. Copland briefly introduces the Irish theme 'Gilderoy' in the clarinet and oboe. Building toward the end, Copland reintroduces 'Bonaparte's Retreat' in, before returning to the Rodeo theme, which slows into the climactic kiss between the Cowgirl and the Roper.
'Bonaparte's Retreat' is then resumed by the full orchestra, which ends the piece with a grand fanfare. Ballet and its place in the repertoire [ ] In what is considered one of the earliest examples of a truly American ballet, Rodeo combines the exuberance of a Broadway musical with the disciplines of classical ballet. Of particular note, the first scene requires men to pantomime riding and roping while dancing solo and dancing in groups (not very common for male ballet dancers), and while interacting with an awkward Cowgirl, who seeks their acceptance. The cast dresses in stylized western garb, which makes it all the more difficult to execute many of the moves. Classical ballet storylines typically involve some boy-meets-girl relationship, or at most a love triangle. But Rodeo forces an American Cowgirl to compete against an army of local girls in a quest to win the attention of the Champion Roper. The pairing and mutual attraction of the men and women in the cast appears fluid, and at times confusing to the rejected Cowgirl.
Against this backdrop, the Cowgirl emotes strength, awkwardness, confidence, femininity and vulnerability, while executing rapid-fire footwork and pantomime, which mimics the bronco-busting of the men. Any comic dancer who plays the Cowgirl must succeed at being a failure, only to emerge triumphant in the end when she finally dons a dress for dance night. Regarding this nuanced role, DeMille said: 'She acts like a boy, not to be a boy, but to be liked by the boys.'
The American Ballet Notes for its 1950 premiere performance (, Germany) state: Rodeo. Is a love story of the American Southwest. The problem it deals with is perennial: how an American girl, with the odds seemingly all against her, sets out to get herself a man. The girl in this case is a cowgirl, a tomboy whose desperate efforts to become one of the ranch's cowhands create a problem for the cowboys and make her the laughingstock of womankind. As noted above, finding suitable Cowgirls to play this role was a challenge. Recalls that when the had exclusive rights to stage Rodeo, Agnes DeMille urged the employment of 'charming and talented comediennes from the Broadway musical stage' for the role.
In the ballet world, DeMille's favorites for the role were: Dorothy Etheridge (), Jenny Workman (The ), Carole Valleskey (), Bonnie Wyckoff () and Christine Sarry (). In the 1970s, Christine Sarry emerged as DeMille's preferred interpreter of this complex role, DeMille even preferring Sarry's version to her own. Agnes DeMille stated in her will that only Sarry was authorized to approve of dancers who could take up the role of the Cowgirl. Since Agnes DeMille's death, Sarry has coached and approved numerous dancers in the part.
In the 21st century, the list includes: Tina LeBlanc (San Francisco Ballet (2006), Kristin Long (San Francisco Ballet, 2007); (American Ballet Theater, 2006); Marian Butler (American Ballet Theater, 2006); and Erica Cornejo (American Ballet Theater, 2005). Cornejo, critic Jerry Hochman wrote, 'Cornejo owns the role now'. Up to 1979, Rodeo was staged mainly by deMille and Vernon Lusby, for many years one of her most trusted assistants on numerous projects. When illness precluded his ability to continue setting Rodeo in 1981, deMille asked Paul Sutherland, a former principal dancer with American Ballet Theatre, Joffrey Ballet, and Harkness Ballet who had danced leading roles in several of her ballets, to begin staging Rodeo. With the passing of Agnes deMille in 1993, ownership and all rights to Rodeo passed to her son, Jonathan Prude. For the next several years, several people staged the ballet. In 1999, Prude set up the deMille Committee to oversee her numerous works and assigned sole responsibility for staging Rodeo to Sutherland, including the selection of dancers, rehearsals and stage production.
With the exception of a few companies to whom Agnes deMille had, years before, given the ballet in perpetuity, Sutherland has staged Rodeo over fifty times for dozens of companies and universities throughout the United States and Canada as well as in Antwerp, Belgium, and continues to do so. For a point of comparison, it has been nearly 120 years since the premiere of, and more than 70 years since the premiere of Rodeo. This increasing longevity, plus the anchoring of Copland’s score in American culture, suggests near-certain permanence for the ballet. Popular culture [ ] A version of the 'Hoe-Down' section was recorded by 1970s progressive rock band, on its Trilogy album, and later by folk rock and jazz group. At 's performances during his ', he is introduced by his stage manager reading a short biography with 'Hoe-Down' playing in the background. The music was also famously used as the background theme for the ' advertising campaign in the 1990s, and also in episode '. A close parody of it, titled 'In Training' and adapted with the film's, was composed by for.
A further adaptation appears in Titanic during the below-decks Irish dancing scene. 'Hoe-Down' accompanied one of the choreographed opening ceremony performances of the in Salt Lake City, Utah.
References [ ].