Dec 11, 2015. Cannabinoids are basically derived from three sources: (a) Phytocannabinoids are cannabinoid compounds produced by plants Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica; (b) Endocannabinoids are neurotransmitters produced in the brain or in peripheral tissues, and act on cannabinoid receptors;.
One gram 'bubble melt' hashish Hashish, or hash, is a. While herbal cannabis is referred to as, hashish is cannabis. It is consumed by smoking a small piece, typically in a pipe,, or, or via oral ingestion (after decarboxylation). As pure hashish will not burn if rolled alone in a joint, it is typically mixed with herbal cannabis, or another type of herb for this method of consumption. [ ] Depending on region or country, multiple synonyms and alternative names exist.
Hash is an extracted cannabis product composed of compressed or purified preparations of stalked resin glands, called, from the plant. It is defined by the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (Schedule I and IV) as 'the separated resin, whether crude or purified, obtained from the cannabis plant.'
The resin contains ingredients such as (THC) and other —but often in higher concentrations than the unsifted or unprocessed cannabis flower. Purities of confiscated Hashish in Europe (2011) range between 4-15%. Between 2000 and 2005 the percentage of Hashish in cannabis end product seizures was at 18%. Hashish may be solid or resinous depending on both preparation and room temperature; pressed hashish is usually solid, whereas water-purified hashish—often called 'bubble melt hash'—is often a paste-like substance with varying hardness and pliability; its color, most commonly light to dark brown, can vary from transparent to yellow, tan, black, or red.
This all depends on the process and amount of solvent left over. Hashish is the primary form of cannabis used in Europe, whereas herbal cannabis is more widely used in Northern America. Besides its recreational use, the active ingredient of hashish,, has been of interest for research and medical purposes since its arrival in the 18th century. While it was widely used as a medicine for multiple diseases, the emergence of specific treatments led to a sharp decline in prescriptions, eventually becoming illegal to use via the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The street price for hashish in Europe in 2011 varied from €3 (Portugal) per gram to €18 in Malta.
Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • History [ ] The history of hashish is very similar to the history of and developed in parallel, as it is made from the resin of the plant. The name comes from the Arabic word ( حشيش ) which means grass. Hashish has been consumed for many centuries.
However, there is no clear evidence to date it back exactly., Around 900 AD hashish use spread through Arabia while it was introduced to Europe during the 18th century. It is believed that massive hashish production for international trade originated in during the 1960s, where the cannabis plant was widely available. Before the coming of the first hippies from the Hippie Hashish Trail, only small pieces of Lebanese hashish were found in Morocco. However, has been reported from a cultural setting on Taiwan as long ago as 10,000 BC., and '[t]he earliest human use of Cannabis appears to have occurred in the steppe regions of Central Asia or in China.' Northern India has a long social tradition in the production of hashish, known locally as, which is believed to be the same plant resin as was burned in the ceremonial booz rooz of.
Grows wild almost everywhere on the Indian sub-continent, and special strains have been particularly cultivated for production of ganja and hashish, especially in West Bengal, Rajasthan and the Himalayas. [ ] In 1596, Dutchman spent three pages on 'Bangue' ( ) in his historic work documenting his journeys in the East. He particularly mentioned the Egyptian Hashish. He said, 'Bangue is likewise much used in Turkie and Egypt, and is made in three sorts, having also three names. The first by the Egyptians is called Assis (Hashish (Arab.)), which is the poulder of Hemp, or of Hemp leaves, which is water made in paste or dough, they would eat five peeces, (each) as big as a Chestnut (or larger); This is used by the common people, because it is of a small price, and it is no wonder, that such vertue proceedeth from the Hempe, for that according to Galens opinion, Hempe excessively filleth the head.' In the 1800s, hashish was embraced in some European literary circles. Most famously, the was a club dedicated to the consumption of hashish and other drugs; its members included literary luminaries such as,,, and.
Baudelaire later wrote the 1860 book, about the state of being under the influence of opium and hashish. At around the same time, American author wrote the 1857 book about his youthful experiences, both positive and negative, with the drug.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the majority of hashish in Europe came from Kashmir, Afghanistan, and parts of India, as well as Greece, Syria, Nepal, Lebanon, and Turkey. Larger markets developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s when most of the Hashish was imported from Pakistan and Afghanistan. Due to disruptive conflicts in the regions, Morocco took over and was the sufficient exporter until lately. However, since the 2000s there has been a dramatic shift in the market due to an increase of homegrown cannabis production. While Morocco held a quasi-monopoly in the 1990s with the so-called 250g 'soap bar' blocks, which were of low quality, Afghanistan has now been announced the biggest producer of higher quality hashish. Since then, the quality in Europe has increased while the prices have remained stable. European market [ ] According to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Western Europe is the biggest market for cannabis resin with 70% of global seizures.
The European hashish market is changing though: Cannabis cultivation increased throughout the 1990s until 2004, with a noticeable decrease reported in 2005 according to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Morocco has been the major source, however lately there has been a shift in the market and Afghanistan has been named the major producer of Hashish. Even though a drop in usage and production has been reported, Morocco produced around 6600 tonnes of resin in 2005. As 641 tonnes of hashish were consumed in the EU in 2013, the European market is currently the world’s largest and most profitable. Therefore, many actors are involved in the business, including organised crime groups.The largest cannabis resin seizures in Europe happen in Spain, due to its proximity to Northern Africa.
The 1990s 'Soap bars' disappeared and the physical shapes of hashish changed to melon shaped, tablets or olive shaped pellets. Overall the general trend of domestically grown cannabis displacing the imported resin leads to a market reaction of potency changes while the prices remain stable while soap-bar potency increased from 8% to up to 20.7% in 2014. Generally, more herb than resin is consumed in Europe. Substance properties [ ] As hashish is a derivative of, it has the same substance properties.
When smoked, can be detected in plasma within seconds, with a half-life of 2 hours. Due to its lipophilic nature, it is widely distributed through the body, and some metabolites can be detected in urine for up to two weeks following consumption. Hashish is made from -rich glandular hairs known as, as well as varying amounts of cannabis flower and leaf fragments. The flowers of a mature female plant contain the most trichomes, though trichomes are also found on other parts of the plant.
Certain strains of cannabis are specifically for their ability to produce large amounts of trichomes. The resin reservoirs of the trichomes, sometimes erroneously called (vendors often use the euphemism 'pollen catchers' to describe -grinders in order to skirt paraphernalia-selling laws), are separated from the plant through various methods. Application [ ] Set and setting [ ] Hashish is often consumed in a social setting, being smoked by multiple people who share a pipe,.
Totally Rad 2 Rapidshare Files there. After effects [ ] The pharmacology of Hashish is complicated because of the wide range of. There is little evidence for damage to the organ system, only due to the consumption in combination with tobacco.
There has also been an association with schizophrenia, however it is unclear if there is a causative relationship. Generally the after effects are the same as for cannabis use in general, including its. Use [ ] Hashish can be consumed by oral ingestion or smoking; typically in a pipe,, or, where it is normally mixed with or, as pure hashish will burn poorly if burned alone. Has a low water solubility therefore ingestion leads to poor absorption. Generally the methods are similar to overall.
Altered state [ ] As hashish’ active ingredient is it has the same effects as. Most well known effect of hashish is a euphoric, drowsy, sedated effect.
A certain relief of anxiety is often reported. During a high, the user experiences a distortion of time and space. It has been claimed that the user’s psychological and physiological needs will influence the response and that the user must cooperate with and facilitate the effects. Therefore, the effect of the physical and interpersonal setting is strong and usually controls the underlying tone of the experience. Generally the intensification of sensation and increased clarity of perception have been reported. Short lived adverse effects have also been reported, including psychotic states following heavy consumption. Regular users are at risk of dependence. Explain Techniques To Install Piling Systems And Ground Stabilisation Activities on this page.
Especially people with major mental illnesses e.g. Schizophrenia are vulnerable as hashish provokes relapse and aggravates existing symptoms. Perceptual changes [ ] As perceptual changes are very hard to measure, most studies on the altered state of consciousness concentrate on subjective descriptions only.
The general awareness of proprioceptive responses seem to enhance, as emotional involvement is reported to enhance perception in general. Taste and smell seem intensified and visual scenes seem to have more depth while sounds are heard with more dimension. Perception of time is also reported to change: there is a general experience of time distortion where events take longer to occur and the subject is involved in internal fantasies with the impression that external time has slowed down. However, there seems to be no impression of speed or rapidity for internal processes.
Similar effects are common in normal experience, for example when time slows down in boredom. It is proposed that this distortion is caused as the experience itself is the focus of attention rather than what is happening around the individual.
Functional associations seem to decrease in strength and there are fewer mental impositions on the sensory perception of the object. Aspects which are normally filtered out are given equal attention. Therefore, objects are not necessarily conceptualized via their use but rather experienced as a whole. Detailed attention is paid, focussing on certain aspects of an object, a sentence or any other perceptual input in a magnifying way. Clearly the attention process is affected. Only a narrow amount of diverse contents the focus of attention and fewer objects are perceived. A person may become absorbed by one object, event or process up to the exclusion of everything else, which has been called a train of fantasy and has been described as a form of tunnel vision where the individual is more aware of an individual element of meaning, emotion etc.
There seems to be a certain unity of attention while normally attention relies on multiple channels. Flights of fantasy and dreaming, including perceiving connections and associations of ideas that do not seem accessible in a normal state are often reported. There seems to be a reduction of the automatic availability of memory images, however an increased strength of memories when relevant to central needs. Experiences seem new and are experienced without a feeling of familiarity and is more intense if emotionally salient.
This emotional force may activate internal imagery, which is used to search for identity or to interpret incoming stimuli. Short term memory becomes shorter and in a very high state the sequence of thoughts is not remembered past one or two transitions. Expectancies and anticipation which are important to keep behaviour consistent in normal states seem to be decreased in strength which might lead to surprising or out-of-character behaviour. Normally these expectancies let the person behave in a goal directed and reasonable manner, with the decrease the person might act out in illogical and unforeseeable ways. Similarly inhibitions, especially social inhibition seems to be reduced, resulting in playful behaviour and acting on impulses. Historic use [ ] Hashish arrived in Europe from the East during the 18th century, and is first mentioned in a scientific way by in 1777. Napoleonic campaigns introduced colonial troops to Hashish in Egypt and the first description of usefulness stems from 1830 by pharmacist and botanist.
Before there are some reports of medical use at a low level. In 1811, the founder of Homoeopathy,, published a 'proving' of the effects of Cannabis Sativa in his work Reine Arzneimittellehre (Materia Medica Pura). In 1839, wrote a comprehensive study of Indian hemp, which was recognised by the European school of medicine and describes hash as relief for cramps and causing the disappearance of certain symptoms from afflictions such as rabies, cholera, and tetanus.
This led to high hopes in the medical community. In 1840 reported his successful use of Hashish against pestilence. Also psychiatric experiments with Hashish were done at the same time with being convinced that it is the supreme medicament for use in psychiatry. Hashish was also mentioned and used as an anesthetic in Germany in 1869.
At these times, hashish was imported in great quantities especially from India and called Charass. However, there were also people who did not deem cannabis as harmless. Between 1880 and 1900 was the peak of the medical use, where hashish compounds were most commonplace in almost all European countries and the USA. Evidence of misuse at that time was practically non-existent (as opposed to widespread reports in Asia and Africa).
Hashish played a significant role in the treatment of pain, migraine, dysmenorrhea, pertussis asthma and insomnia in Europe and USA towards the end of the 19th century. Rare applications included stomach ache, depression, diarrhea, diminished appetite, pruritus, hemorrhage, basedown syndrome and malaria.
The usage of hashish decreased as even supporters agreed on the unreliability of its compounds, with critics calling it worthless and dangerous. Eventually, hashish as a medicine disappeared completely in the 20th century with the introduction of specific medicines for all of its main applications. The use was later prohibited worldwide as the use as a medicine was made impossible by the 1961 UN. Manufacturing processes [ ]. Making charas from fresh cannabis resin,, India The sticky resins of the fresh flowering female cannabis plant are collected by pressing or rubbing the flowering plant between two hands and then forming the sticky resins into a small ball of hashish called charas. Mechanical separation methods use physical action to remove the trichomes from the dried plant material, such as sieving through a screen by hand or in motorized tumblers.
This technique is known as 'drysifting'. The resulting powder, referred to as 'kief' or 'drysift', is compressed with the aid of heat into blocks of hashish; if pure, the kief will become gooey and pliable. When a high level of pure THC is present, the end product will be almost transparent and will start to melt at the point of human contact. Is another mechanical method of isolating trichomes. Newer techniques have been developed such as heat and pressure separations, static-electricity sieving or acoustical dry sieving. ElSohly (2007)..
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The War on Drugs II.,: Mayfield Publishing Company. Further reading [ ] • Hashish!
By Robert Connell Clarke, • The Hasheesh Eater by Fitz Hugh Ludlow; first edition 1857 • Marihuana The first twelve thousand years by Ernest L. Abel, 1980, • Starks, Michael. Marijuana Potency.
Berkeley, California: And/Or Press, 1977. Chapter 6 'Extraction of THC and Preparation of Hash Oil' pp. 111–122.. External links [ ] Look up in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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