Search Tips Phrase Searching Use quotes to search an exact phrase: e.g. 'occult fiction' Wildcards Use *? To search for alternate forms of a word. Use * to stand for several characters, and? For a single character: e.g.
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This section needs additional citations for. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2015) () Acronymy, like, is a linguistic process that has existed throughout history but for which there was little to no, conscious attention, or until relatively recent times. Like retronymy, it became much more common in the 20th century than it had formerly been. Ancient examples of acronymy (regardless of whether there was at the time to describe it) include the following: • Acronyms were used in Rome before the Christian era. For example, the official name for the Roman Empire, and the Republic before it, was abbreviated as ( Senatus Populusque Romanus). Inscriptions dating from antiquity, both on stone and on coins, use a lot of abbreviations and acronyms to save room and work.
For example,, of which there was only a small set, were almost always abbreviated. Common terms were abbreviated too, such as writing just 'F' for filius, meaning 'son of', a very common part of memorial inscriptions mentioning people. Grammatical markers were abbreviated or left out entirely if they could be inferred from the rest of the text. • So-called were used in many Greek biblical manuscripts. The common words 'God' ( Θεός), 'Jesus' ( Ιησούς), 'Christ' ( Χριστός), and some others, would be abbreviated by their first and last letters, marked with an overline. This was just one of many kinds of conventional scribal abbreviation, used to reduce the time-consuming workload of the scribe and save on valuable writing materials. The same convention is still commonly used in the inscriptions on religious and the stamps used to mark the eucharistic bread in.
• The early Christians in Rome, most of whom were Greek rather than Latin speakers, used the image of a fish as a symbol for in part because of an acronym— fish in Greek is ( ΙΧΘΥΣ), which was said to stand for Ἰησοῦς Χριστός Θεοῦ Υἱός Σωτήρ ( Iesous CHristos THeou hUios Soter: 'Jesus Christ, God's Son, Savior'). This interpretation dates from the 2nd and 3rd centuries and is preserved in the of Rome. And for centuries, the Church has used the inscription over the crucifix, which stands for the Latin Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum ('Jesus the Nazarene, King of the Jews'). • The Hebrew language has a long history of formation of acronyms pronounced as words, stretching back many centuries. The Hebrew Bible ('Old Testament') is known as ', an acronym composed from the Hebrew initial letters of its three major sections: (five books of Moses), (prophets), and (writings). Many rabbinical figures from the Middle Ages onward are referred to in rabbinical literature by their pronounced acronyms, such as and from the initial letters of their full Hebrew names: Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon and Rabbi Shlomo Yitzkhaki. During the mid- to late-19th century, an acronym-disseminating trend spread through the American and European business communities: abbreviating names in places where space was limited for writing—such as on the sides of (e.g., Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad → RF&P); on the sides of barrels and crates; and on and in the small-print newspaper stock listings that got their data from it (e.g., American Telephone and Telegraph Company → AT&T).
Some well-known commercial examples dating from the 1890s through 1920s include (National Biscuit Company), (from S.O., from ), and (Sun Oil Company). Another driver for the adoption of acronyms was modern warfare with its many highly technical terms. While there is no recorded use of military acronyms in documents dating from the (acronyms such as for 'Army of Northern Virginia' post-date the war itself), they had become somewhat common in and were very much a part even of the vernacular language of the soldiers during, who themselves were referred to as. The widespread, frequent use of acronyms across the whole range of is a relatively new linguistic phenomenon in most languages, becoming increasingly evident since the mid-20th century. As literacy rates rose, and as advances in science and technology brought with them a constant stream of new (and sometimes more complex) terms and concepts, the practice of abbreviating terms became increasingly convenient.
The ( OED) records the first printed use of the word initialism as occurring in 1899, but it did not come into general use until 1965, well after acronym had become common. By 1943, the term acronym had been used in English to recognize abbreviations (and contractions of phrases) that were pronounced as words. (It was formed from the Greek words ἄκρος, akros, 'topmost, extreme' and ὄνομα, onoma, 'name.'
) For example, the army offense of being absent without official leave was abbreviated to ' in reports, but when pronounced as a word ( awol), it became an acronym. While initial letters are commonly used to form an acronym, the original definition was 'a word made from the initial letters or syllables of other words', for example from UNIVersal Automatic Computer. In English, acronyms pronounced as words may be a 20th-century phenomenon. Linguist David Wilton in Word Myths: Debunking Linguistic Urban Legends claims that 'forming words from acronyms is a distinctly twentieth- (and now twenty-first-) century phenomenon. There is only one known pre-twentieth-century [English] word with an acronymic origin and it was in vogue for only a short time in 1886.
The word is colinderies or colinda, an acronym for the held in London in that year.' However, although acronymic words seem not to have been employed in general vocabulary before the 20th century (as Wilton points out), the concept of their formation is treated as effortlessly understood (and evidently not novel) in a Poe story of the 1830s, ', which includes the contrived acronym P.R.E.T.T.Y.B.L.U.E.B.A.T.C.H. Early examples in English [ ] The use of Latin and Neo-Latin terms in has been pan-European and predates modern English. Some examples of acronyms in this class are: • (from Latin ante meridiem, 'before noon') and (from Latin post meridiem, 'after noon') • A.D. (from Latin, 'in the year of our Lord'), whose complement in English, B.C. , is English-sourced •, a term of disputed origin, dating back at least to the early 19th century, now used around the world The earliest example of a word derived from an acronym listed by the is 'abjud' (now '), formed from the original first four letters of the in the late 18th century. Some predate this, however, such as the witticism arranging the names of some members of 's Committee for Foreign Affairs to produce the.
Current use [ ] Acronyms are used most often to abbreviate names of organizations and long or frequently referenced terms. The and government agencies frequently employ acronyms; some well-known examples from the United States are among the ' (also jokingly referred to as ') created by (also of course known as FDR) under the. Business and industry also are prolific coiners of acronyms. The rapid advance of science and technology in recent centuries seems to be an underlying force driving the usage, as new inventions and concepts with multiword names create a demand for shorter, more manageable names. [ ] One representative example, from the U.S. Navy, is COMCRUDESPAC, which stands for commander, cruisers destroyers Pacific; it's also seen as 'ComCruDesPac'.
'YABA-compatible' (where YABA stands for 'yet another bloody acronym') is used to mean that a term's acronym can be pronounced but is not an offensive word, e.g., 'When choosing a new name, be sure it is 'YABA-compatible'.' Acronym use has been further popularized by text messaging on mobile phones with Short Message Systems (SMS). To fit messages into the 160-character SMS limit, acronyms such as 'GF' (girlfriend), 'LOL' (laughing out loud), and 'DL' (download or down low) have become popular.
Some disdain texting acronyms and abbreviations as decreasing clarity, or as failure to use 'pure' or 'proper' English. Others point out that has happened for thousands of years, and argue that it should be embraced as inevitable, or as innovation that adapts the language to changing circumstances. In this view, the modern practice is just as legitimate as those in 'proper' English of the current generation of speakers, such as the abbreviation of corporation names in places with limited writing space (e.g., ticker tape, newspaper ). Aids to learning the expansion without leaving a document [ ]. This section needs additional citations for. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2015) () In formal writing for a broad audience, the expansion is typically given at the first occurrence of the acronym within a given text, for the benefit of those readers who do not know what it stands for.
The capitalization of the original term is independent of it being acronymized, being lowercase for a such as frequently asked questions (FAQ) but uppercase for a such as the United Nations (UN) (as explained at ). In addition to expansion at first use, some publications also have a key listing all acronyms used therein and what their expansions are. This is a convenience to readers for two reasons. The first is that if they are not reading the entire publication sequentially (which is a common mode of reading), then they may encounter an acronym without having seen its expansion. Having a key at the start or end of the publication obviates skimming over the text searching for an earlier use to find the expansion. (This is especially important in the print medium, where no search utility. Is available.) The second reason for the key feature is its pedagogical value in educational works such as textbooks.
It gives students a way to review the meanings of the acronyms introduced in a chapter after they have done the line-by-line reading, and also a way to quiz themselves on the meanings (by covering up the expansion column and recalling the expansions from memory, then checking their answers by uncovering.) In addition, this feature enables readers possessing knowledge of the abbreviations not to have to encounter expansions (redundant to such readers). Expansion at first use and the abbreviation-key feature are aids to the reader that originated in the print era, and they are equally useful in print and online. In addition, the online medium offers yet more aids, such as,, and rapid search via. Jargon [ ] Acronyms often occur in. An acronym may have different meanings in different areas of industry, writing, and scholarship. The general reason for this is convenience and succinctness for specialists, although it has led some to obfuscate the meaning either intentionally, to deter those without such domain-specific knowledge, or unintentionally, by creating an acronym that already existed.
The medical literature has been struggling to control the proliferation of acronyms as their use has evolved from aiding communication to hindering it. This has become such a problem that it is even evaluated at the level of medical academies such as the American Academy of Dermatology. As mnemonics [ ] Acronyms are often taught as devices, for example in physics the colors of the visible spectrum are (red-orange-yellow-green-blue-indigo-violet). They are also used as mental checklists, for example in aviation:, which is Gas-Undercarriage-Mixture-Propeller-Seatbelts. Other examples of mnemonic acronyms include, and as well as. Acronyms as legendary etymology [ ]. See also: It is not uncommon for acronyms to be cited in a kind of, called a folk etymology, for a word.
Such etymologies persist in popular culture but have no factual basis in, and are examples of language-related. For example, is commonly cited as being derived, it is presumed, from 'constable on patrol,' and from '. With some of these specious expansions, the 'belief' that the etymology is acronymic has clearly been among many citers, as with 'gentlemen only, ladies forbidden' for, although many other (more ) people have uncritically taken it for fact. In particular commonly have such false etymologies: from 'ship/store high in transit' or 'special high-intensity training' and from 'for unlawful carnal knowledge', or 'fornication under consent/command of the king'. Orthographic styling [ ] Punctuation [ ] Showing the ellipsis of letters [ ] In English, abbreviations have traditionally been written with a in place of the deleted part to show the ellipsis of letters – although the and have also had this role – and with a space after full stops (e.g.
In the case of most acronyms, each letter is an abbreviation of a separate word and, in theory, should get its own termination mark. Such punctuation is diminishing with the belief that the presence of all-capital letters is sufficient to indicate that the word is an abbreviation. Ellipsis-is-understood style [ ] Some influential, such as that of the, no longer require punctuation to show ellipsis; some even proscribe it. Larry Trask, American author of The Guide to Punctuation, states categorically that, in, 'this tiresome and unnecessary practice is now obsolete'. Pronunciation-dependent style and periods [ ] Nevertheless, some influential, many of them, still require periods in certain instances. For example, recommends following each segment with a period when the letters are pronounced individually, as in, but not when pronounced as a word, as in. The logic of this style is that the pronunciation is reflected graphically by the punctuation scheme.
Other conventions [ ] When a multiple-letter abbreviation is formed from a single word, periods are in general not used, although they may be common in informal usage. TV, for example, may stand for a single word ( television or transvestite, for instance), and is in general spelled without punctuation (except in the plural). Although PS stands for the single word postscript (or the Latin postscriptum), it is often spelled with periods ( P.S.).
The ('/', or solidus) is sometimes used to separate the letters in a two-letter acronym, as in N/A ( not applicable, not available), c/o ( care of) and w/o ( without). Inconveniently long words used frequently in related contexts can be represented according to their letter count. For example, i18n abbreviates, a computer-science term for adapting software for worldwide use.
The 18 represents the 18 letters that come between the first and the last in internationalization. Localization can be abbreviated l10n, m17n, and a11y. In addition to the use of a specific number replacing that many letters, the more general 'x' can be used to replace an unspecified number of letters.
Examples include Crxn for crystallization and the series familiar to physicians for,, and ( hx, dx, tx). Representing plurals and possessives [ ] There is a question about how to pluralize acronyms. Often a writer will add an 's' following an apostrophe, as in 'PC's'. However,, writing about style in academic writings, allows for an apostrophe to form plural acronyms 'only when an abbreviation contains internal periods or both capital and lowercase letters'. Turabian would therefore prefer 'DVDs' and 'URLs' and 'Ph.D.'
The and prohibit apostrophes from being used to pluralize acronyms regardless of periods (so 'compact discs' would be 'CDs' or 'C.D.s'), whereas the style guide requires an apostrophe when pluralizing all abbreviations regardless of periods (preferring 'PC's, TV's and VCR's'). Possessive plurals that also include apostrophes for mere pluralization and periods appear especially complex: for example, the C.D.' S' labels (the labels of the compact discs). In some instances, however, an apostrophe may increase clarity: for example, if the final letter of an abbreviation is S, as in SOS's (although abbreviations ending with S can also take -es, e.g. SOSes), or when pluralizing an abbreviation that has periods.
A particularly rich source of options arises when the plural of an acronym would normally be indicated in a word other than the final word if spelled out in full. A classic example is Member of Parliament, which in plural is Members of Parliament. It is possible then to abbreviate this as M's P. (or similar ), as used by former Australian Prime Minister. This usage is less common than forms with s at the end, such as MPs, and may appear dated or pedantic. In common usage, therefore, weapons of mass destruction becomes WMDs, prisoners of war becomes POWs, and runs batted in becomes RBIs.
The argument that acronyms should have no different plural form (for example, 'If D can stand for disc, it can also stand for disc s') is in general disregarded because of the practicality in distinguishing singulars and plurals. This is not the case, however, when the abbreviation is understood to describe a plural noun already: For example, U.S. Is short for United State s, but not United State. In this case, the options for making a possessive form of an abbreviation that is already in its plural form without a final s may seem awkward: for example, U.S., U.S.' In such instances, possessive abbreviations are often foregone in favor of simple usage (for example, the U.S. Economy) or expanding the abbreviation to its full form and then making the possessive (for example, the United States' economy). On the other hand, in speech, the pronunciation United States's sometimes is used.
Abbreviations that come from single, rather than multiple, words—such as TV ( television)—are usually pluralized without apostrophes ( two TVs); most writers feel that the apostrophe should be reserved for the possessive ( the TV's antenna). In some languages, the convention of doubling the letters in the acronym is used to indicate plural words: for example, the Spanish EE.
UU., for Estados Unidos ('United States'). This old convention is still followed for a limited number of English abbreviations, such as SS. For 'Saints', pp. For the Latin plural of 'pages', paginae, or MSS for 'manuscripts'.
In the case of pp. It derives from the original Latin phrase per procurationem meaning 'through the agency of'; an English translation alternative is particular pages in a book or document: see pp 8-88.. Further information: Case [ ] All-caps style [ ] The most common scheme seen with acronyms is all-uppercase (), except for those few that have linguistically taken on an identity as regular words, with the acronymous etymology of the words fading into the background of common knowledge, such as has occurred with the words,, and —these are known as anacronyms. Anacronyms (note well -acro-) should not be confused with. Small-caps variant [ ] are sometimes used to make the run of capital letters seem less jarring to the reader.
For example, the style of some American publications, including the and, is to use small caps for acronyms longer than three letters [ ]; thus 'U.S.' And ' in normal caps, but ' nato' in small caps. The acronyms ' and ' are often smallcapped as well, as in: 'From 4004 bc to ad 525'. Mixed-case variant [ ] Words derived from an acronym by affixing are typically expressed in mixed case, so the root acronym is clear.
For example, pre-WWII politics, post-NATO world,. In some cases a derived acronym may also be expressed in mixed case. For example, and become mRNA and tRNA. Pronunciation-dependent style and case [ ] Some publications choose to capitalize only the first letter of acronyms, reserving all-caps styling for initialisms, writing the pronounced acronyms 'Nato' and 'Aids' in mixed case, but the initialisms 'USA' and 'FBI' in all caps.
For example, this is the style used in, and typically edits to this style (though its official style guide, dating from 2003, still recommends all-caps ). The logic of this style is that the pronunciation is reflected graphically by the capitalization scheme. Some style manuals also base the letters' on their number. The New York Times, for example, keeps NATO in all capitals (while several guides in the British press may render it Nato), but uses lower case in (from 'United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund') because it is more than four letters, and to style it in caps might look ungainly (flirting with the appearance of 'shouting capitals').
Numerals and constituent words [ ] While abbreviations typically exclude the initials of short (such as 'and', 'or', 'of', or 'to'), this is not always the case. (A similar set of words is sometimes left as lowercase in.) Sometimes function words are included to make a pronounceable acronym, such as CORE (). Sometimes the letters representing these words are written in lower case, such as in the cases of TfL () and LotR ( ); this usually occurs when the acronym represents a multi-word proper noun. Numbers (both and ) in names are often represented by rather than initial letters: as in 4GL () or G77 (). Large numbers may use, as with for 'Year 2000' (sometimes written Y2k, because the SI symbol for 1000 is k—not K, which stands for ). Exceptions using initials for numbers include (three-letter acronym/abbreviation) and GoF (). Abbreviations using numbers for other purposes include repetitions, such as ('World Wide Web Consortium') and ( Trends, Tips & Tools for Everyday Living); pronunciation, such as ('business to business'); and, such as i18n ('internationalization'; 18 represents the 18 letters between the initial i and the final n).
Casing of expansions [ ] Although many authors of show a predisposition to capitalizing the initials of the expansion for pedagogical emphasis (trying to thrust the reader's attention toward where the letters are coming from), this sometimes conflicts with the convention of, which reserves capitals in the middle of sentences for. Enforcing the general convention, most professional editors [ ] such expansions to their standard orthography when editing manuscripts for publication. The justification is that (1) readers are smart enough to figure out where the letters came from, even without their being capitalized for emphasis, and that (2) common nouns do not take capital initials in standard English orthography. Such house styles also usually disfavor bold or italic font for the initial letters. [ ] For example, 'the onset of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)' or 'the onset of congestive heart failure (CHF)' if found in an unpublished manuscript would be rewritten as 'the onset of congestive heart failure (CHF)' in the final published article when following the.
Changes to (or word play on) the expanded meaning [ ] Pseudo-acronyms [ ] Some apparent acronyms or other abbreviations do not stand for anything and cannot be expanded to some meaning. Such pseudo-acronyms may be pronunciation-based, such as (bee-bee-cue), for 'barbecue', or (kay-nine) for 'canine'. Pseudo-acronyms also frequently develop as ' orphan initialisms'; an existing acronym is redefined as a non-acronymous name, severing its link to its previous meaning.
For example, the letters of the, a US college entrance test originally dubbed 'Scholastic Aptitude Test', no longer officially stand for anything. This is common with companies that want to retain while moving away from an outdated image: American Telephone and Telegraph became, became to de-emphasize the role of frying in the preparation of its signature dishes, and became BP. Has rebranded itself as. Genzyme Transgenics Corporation became GTC Biotherapeutics, Inc.
In order to reduce perceived corporate risk of sabotage/vandalism by Luddite activists. [ ] Pseudo-acronyms may have advantages in international markets: [ ] for example, some national of are legally incorporated as 'IBM' (for example, 'IBM Canada') to avoid translating the full name into local languages. [ ] Likewise, ' is the name of the merged and, and ' has replaced 'The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation.' Sometimes, [ ] companies whose original name gives a clear indication of their place of origin will use acronyms when expanding to foreign markets – for example, continues to operate under the full name in Canada, but its U.S. Subsidiary is known as, [ ] just as used its full name in Canada (a ), but its now-defunct U.S. Subsidiary was called.
[ ] Redundant acronyms and RAS syndrome [ ]. Main article: Rebranding can lead to, [ ] as when became TSB Bank, [ ] or when became REA Express. [ ] A few [ ] companies have taken the redundant acronym to the extreme [ ]: for example, ISM Information Systems Management Corp. And SHL Systemhouse Ltd.
[ ] Examples in entertainment include the television shows and [ ] ('Navy' was dropped in the second season), where the redundancy was likely [ ] designed to educate new viewers as to what the initials stood for. [ ] The same reasoning [ ] was in evidence when the 's Canadian operations rebranded to RBC Royal Bank, [ ] or when rebranded their retail banking subsidiary BMO Bank of Montreal. [ ] Another common example [ ] is ' memory', which is redundant because 'RAM' ('random-access memory') includes the initial of the word 'memory'. [ ] 'PIN' stands for 'personal identification number', obviating the second word in ' [ ]; in this case its retention may be motivated to avoid ambiguity with the homophonous word 'pin'. [ ] Other examples include ' machine,' ',' ',' ',' ' virus,' Microsoft's NT Technology, and the formerly redundant ' test,' now simply 'SAT Reasoning Test').
[ ] (The Nashville/National Network) also renamed itself 'The New TNN' for a brief interlude. [ ] Simple redefining [ ] Sometimes, the initials continue to stand for an expanded meaning, but the original meaning is simply replaced. Some examples: • was originally an acronym of the unofficial term digital video disk, but is now stated by the as standing for Digital Versatile Disc.
• changed the full form of its name from General Accounting Office to Government Accountability Office. • (in the United States) changed the full form of its name from Government Printing Office to Government Publishing Office. • used to mean Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks, but is now commonly interpreted as Redundant Array of Independent Disks. • WWF originally stood for World Wildlife Fund, but now stands for (although the former name is still used in Canada and the United States). • The, whose initials came from the versions of its name (such as French Union Internationale Contre le Cancer, 'International Union Against Cancer'), changed the English expansion of its name to Union for International Cancer Control (from International Union Against Cancer) so that the English expansion, too, would correspond to the UICC initials.
Backronyms [ ]. Main article: A backronym (or bacronym) is a that is constructed 'after the fact' from a previously existing word. For example, the novelist and critic once proposed that the word 'book' ought to stand for ' Box Of Organized Knowledge.' A classic real-world example of this is the name of the predecessor to the Apple Macintosh, The, which was said to refer to 'Local Integrated Software Architecture', but was actually named after Steve Jobs' daughter, born in 1978.
Contrived acronyms [ ] Acronyms are sometimes, that is, deliberately designed to be especially apt for the thing being named (by having a dual meaning or by borrowing the positive connotations of an existing word). Some examples of contrived acronyms are,, and. The clothing company began referring to itself as fcuk, standing for 'French Connection United Kingdom.'
The company then created T-shirts and several advertising campaigns that exploit the acronym's similarity to the taboo word '.' The US Department of Defense's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency () is known for developing contrived acronyms to name projects, including RESURRECT, NIRVANA, and DUDE. In July 2010, reported that DARPA announced programs to '.transform biology from a descriptive to a predictive field of science' named BATMAN and ROBIN for Biochronicity and Temporal Mechanisms Arising in Nature and Robustness of Biologically-Inspired Networks, a reference to the and comic-book superheroes. The short-form names of and other scientific studies constitute a large class of acronyms that includes many contrived examples, as well as many with a partial rather than complete correspondence of letters to expansion components. These trials tend to have full names that are accurately descriptive of what the trial is about but are thus also too long to serve practically as within the syntax of a sentence, so a short name is also developed, which can serve as a syntactically useful handle and also provide at least a degree of reminder as to the full name. Examples widely known in include the ALLHAT trial (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial) and the CHARM trial (Candesartan in Heart Failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity). The fact that is often involved, as well as that the letters often don't entirely match, have sometimes been pointed out by annoyed researchers preoccupied by the idea that because the form of acronyms originated with one-to-one letter matching, there must be some moral impropriety in their ever deviating from that form.
However, the of clinical trial acronyms, as with, is simply to have a syntactically usable and short name to complement the long name that is often syntactically unusable and not. It is useful for the short name to give a reminder of the long name, which supports the reasonable censure of 'cutesy' examples that provide little to no hint of it. But beyond that reasonably close correspondence, the short name's chief utility is in functioning cognitively as a, rather than being a and forgettable string, albeit faithful to the matching of letters. However, other reasonable critiques have been (1) that it is irresponsible to mention trial acronyms without explaining them at least once by providing the long names somewhere in the document, and (2) that the proliferation of trial acronyms has resulted in ambiguity, such as 3 different trials all called ASPECT, which is another reason why failing to explain them somewhere in the document is irresponsible in scientific communication. At least one study has evaluated the and other traits of acronym-named trials compared with others, finding both good aspects (mnemonic help, name recall) and potential flaws ( driven ). Some acronyms are chosen deliberately to avoid a name considered undesirable: For example, (ViB), a German, was first intended to be Alles nur aus Liebe (All for Love), but was changed to avoid the resultant acronym. Gallup Racer 2006 Ps2 Iso Maker there.
Likewise, the Computer Literacy and Internet Technology qualification is known as CLaIT, rather than. In Canada, the was quickly renamed to the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance when its opponents pointed out that its initials spelled CCRAP (pronounced 'see '). (The satirical magazine had proposed alternatives to CCRAP, namely SSHIT and.) Two Irish Institutes of Technology (Galway and Tralee) chose different acronyms from other institutes when they were upgraded from Regional Technical colleges.
Tralee RTC became the Institute of Technology Tralee (ITT), as opposed to Tralee Institute of Technology (). Galway RTC became Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology (GMIT), as opposed to Galway Institute of Technology (). The charity sports organization is known as 'TNT' and not 'TIT'.
Is still known as TITS. Was planning to name their law school the Antonin Scalia School of Law () in honor of the late, only to change it to the Antonin Scalia Law School later. Macronyms/nested acronyms [ ] A macronym, or nested acronym, is an acronym in which one or more letters stand for acronyms themselves. The word 'macronym' is a of ' and 'acronym'. Some examples of macronyms are: • stands for 'XML HTTP Request', in which is 'eXtensible Markup Language', and stands for 'HyperText Transfer Protocol'. • stands for Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC, in which stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computing.
• stands for 'VHSIC Hardware Description Language', in which stands for 'Very High Speed Integrated Circuit'. • stands for 'XML Schema Definition', in which stands for 'eXtensible Markup Language'. • stands for 'SEMI equipment communication standard', in which stands for 'Semiconductor equipment manufacturing industries'. • stands for 'AOL Instant Messenger', in which stands for '.
• stood for Houston Automatic Spooling Priority, but itself was an acronym – simultaneous peripheral operations on-line Some macronyms can be multiply nested: the second-order acronym points to another one further down a hierarchy. In an informal competition run by the magazine, a fully documented specimen was discovered that may be the most deeply nested of all: RARS is the 'Regional ATOVS Retransmission Service'; ATOVS is 'Advanced TOVS'; TOVS is ' operational vertical sounder'; and TIROS is 'Television infrared observational satellite'. Fully expanded, 'RARS' might thus become 'Regional Advanced Television Infrared Observational Satellite Operational Vertical Sounder Retransmission Service'. However, to say that 'RARS' stands directly for that string of words, or can be interchanged with it in (in the same way that 'CHF' can be usefully interchanged with 'congestive heart failure'), is a misapprehension rather than a linguistically accurate description; the true nature of such a term is closer to than to being interchangeable like simpler acronyms are. The latter are fully reducible in an attempt to 'spell everything out and avoid all abbreviations,' but the former are irreducible in that respect; they can be with parenthetical explanations, but they cannot be eliminated from speech or writing in any useful or practical way. Just as the words laser and radar function as words in and without a need to focus on their acronymic origins, terms such as 'RARS' and ' are irreducible in; if they are purged, the form of language that is left may conform to some imposed rule, but it cannot be described as remaining natural. Similarly, and nomenclature,, includes such terms as the name of the, which reflects the symbols of some proteins that contain the domain—NAIP (NLR family apoptosis inhibitor protein), C2TA (major histocompatibility complex class II transcription activator), HET-E (incompatibility locus protein from Podospora anserine), and TP1 (telomerase-associated protein)—but is not syntactically reducible to them.
The name is thus itself more symbol than acronym, and its expansion cannot replace it while preserving its function in natural syntax as a within a clearly by human readers or listeners. Can You Feel The Love Tonight Pdf String Quartet Music. Recursive acronyms [ ]. Main article: A special type of macronym, the, has letters whose expansion refers back to the macronym itself. One of the earliest examples appears in as, which stands for 'MUNG Until No Good'. Main article: It is common to take more than just one initial letter from each of the words composing the acronym; regardless of this, the abbreviation sign ⟨״⟩ is always written between the second-last and last letters of the non-inflected form of the acronym, even if by this it separates letters of the same original word.
Examples (keep in mind Hebrew reads right-to-left): ארה״ב (for ארצות הברית, the United States); ברה״מ (for ברית המועצות, the Soviet Union); ראשל״צ (for ראשון לציון, ); ביה״ס (for בית הספר, the school). An example that takes only the initial letters from its component words is צה״ל ( Tzahal, for צבא הגנה לישראל, ).
In inflected forms the abbreviation sign remains between the second-last and last letters of the non-inflected form of the acronym (e.g. 'report', singular: דו״ח, plural: דו״חות; 'squad commander', masculine: מ״כ, feminine: מ״כית). Indonesian [ ].