Map of ancient Boeotia. Download Born To Be Wild 1995 on this page. Boeotia lies to the north of the eastern part of the.
It also has a short coastline on the. It bordered on (now ) in the south, in the southeast, in the northeast, (now part of ) in the north and in the west. The main mountain ranges of Boeotia are in the west, in the southwest, in the south and in the east.
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Its longest river, the, flows in the central part, where most of the low-lying areas of Boeotia are found. Was a large lake in the center of Boeotia. It was drained in the 19th century. Is a large lake near. Origins [ ] The earliest inhabitants of Boeotia, associated with the city of, were called. Mentions that Minyans established the maritime city of, and occupied the islands of and.
The were sometimes referred to as Minyans. Also, according to legend the citizens of Thebes paid an annual tribute to their king.
The Minyans may have been speakers, but although most scholars today agree that the descended from the Minyans of the Middle Helladic period, they believe that the progenitors and founders of were an group. The early wealth and power of Boeotia is shown by the reputation and visible Mycenean remains of several of its cities, especially Orchomenus and. The origin of the name 'Boeotians' may lie in the mountain in. Some toponyms and the common dialect indicate that the Boeotians were related to the. Traditionally, the Boeotians are said to have originally occupied, the largest fertile plain in Greece, and to have been dispossessed by the north-western Thessalians two generations after the (1200 BC). They moved south and settled in another rich plain, while others filtered across the and settled on and in in. Others are said to have stayed in Thessaly, withdrawing into the hill country and becoming the, ('dwellers around').
Though far from Anthela, which lay on the coast of south of in the locality of, Boeotia was an early member of the oldest religious ( Anthelian) because her people had originally lived in Thessaly. Legends and literature [ ]. Map showing ancient regions of central Greece in relation to geographical features. Many ancient Greek legends originated or are set in this region. The older myths took their final form during the (1600–1200 BC) when the established themselves in Boeotia and the city of became an important centre.
Many of them are related to the myths of, and others indicate connections with, where the Mycenean Greeks and later the established trading posts. Important legends related to Boeotia include: • The of • and the •, who was said to have founded Thebes and brought the to Greece • and • The, including the myths of and the, and the • and her sons • • was born in Boeotia and said to have fathered 50 sons with a local river god's daughters.
Many of these legends were used in plays by the tragic Greek poets,, and: • Aeschylus's • Sophocles's,, and, known as the • Euripides's,,, and They were also used in lost plays such as Aeschylus's Niobe and Euripides's Antiope. Boeotia was also notable for the ancient oracular shrine of Trophonius at., an ancient city in Boeotia, is sometimes thought to be the origin of the Latin word Graecus, from which English derives the words Greece and Greeks. The major poets and were Boeotians. Ruins of the Cadmeia, the central fortress of ancient.
Ccs Pcwhd 4 120 Keygen For Mac there. Boeotia had significant political importance, owing to its position on the north shore of the, the strategic strength of its frontiers, and the ease of communication within its extensive area. On the other hand, the lack of good harbours hindered its maritime development. The importance of the legendary has been confirmed by archaeological remains (notably the 'Treasury of Minyas'). The Boeotian population entered the land from the north possibly before the invasion. With the exception of the Minyae, the original peoples were soon absorbed by these immigrants, and the Boeotians henceforth appear as a homogeneous nation. Was spoken in Boeotia. In historical times, the leading city of Boeotia was Thebes, whose central position and military strength made it a suitable capital; other major towns were,, and.
It was the constant ambition of the Thebans to absorb the other townships into a single state, just as had annexed the communities. But the outlying cities successfully resisted this policy, and only allowed the formation of a loose federation which, initially, was merely religious. While the Boeotians, unlike the, generally acted as a united whole against foreign enemies, the constant struggle between the cities was a serious check on the nation's development. Boeotia hardly figures in history before the late 6th century BC. Previous to this, its people are chiefly known as the makers of a type of geometric pottery, similar to the ware of Athens. In about 519 BC, the resistance of to the federating policy of Thebes led to the interference of Athens on behalf of the former; on this occasion, and again in 507 BC, the Athenians defeated the Boeotian levy. Fifth century BC [ ] During the of 480 BC, Thebes assisted the invaders.
In consequence, for a time, the presidency of the Boeotian League was taken from Thebes, but in 457 BC the reinstated that city as a bulwark against Athenian aggression after the. Athens retaliated with a sudden advance upon Boeotia, and after the victory at the took control of the whole country, taking down the wall the Spartans had built. With the victory the Athenians also occupied, the original source of the conflict, and Opuntian. For ten years the land remained under Athenian control, which was exercised through the newly installed democracies; but in 447 BC the people revolted, and after a victory at the regained their independence.
Boeotian cup from painted with birds, 560–540 BC (). In the the Boeotians fought zealously against Athens. Though slightly estranged from Sparta after the, they never abated their enmity against their neighbours. They rendered good service at and at the in the closing years of the Pelopennesian War; but their greatest achievement was the decisive victory at the over the Athenian army (424 BC) in which both their heavy infantry and their cavalry displayed unusual efficiency.
Boeotian League [ ] About this time the Boeotian League comprised eleven groups of sovereign cities and associated townships, each of which elected one or minister of war and foreign affairs, contributed sixty delegates to the federal council at Thebes, and supplied a contingent of about 1000 infantry and 100 cavalry to the federal army. A safeguard against undue encroachment on the part of the central government was provided in the councils of the individual cities, to which all important questions of policy had to be submitted for ratification. These local councils, to which the propertied classes alone were eligible, were subdivided into four sections, resembling the of the Athenian council, which took it in turns to vote on all new measures. Two Boeotarchs were provided by Thebes, but by 395 BC Thebes was providing four Boeotarchs, including two who had represented places now conquered by Thebes such as Plataea,,, and.,, and each supplied one Boeotarch. Thespiae,, and supplied two between them., and supplied one in turn, and so did,, and. Fourth century BC [ ] Boeotia took a prominent part in the against Sparta, especially in the battles of and (395-394 BC).
This change of policy was mainly due to the national resentment against foreign interference. Yet disaffection against Thebes was now growing rife, and Sparta fostered this feeling by insisting on the complete independence of all the cities in the peace of Antalcidas (387 BC). In 374, restored Theban dominion and their control was never significantly challenged again.
Boeotian contingents fought in all the campaigns of against the Spartans, most notably at the in 371, and in the against (356-346); while in the dealings with the cities merely followed Thebes. The federal constitution was also brought into accord with the democratic governments now prevalent throughout the land. Sovereign power was vested in the popular assembly, which elected the (between seven and twelve in number), and sanctioned all laws.
After the, in which the Boeotian heavy infantry once again distinguished itself, the land never again rose to prosperity. Hellenistic period [ ] The destruction of Thebes by (335) destroyed the political energy of the Boeotians. They never again pursued an independent policy, but followed the lead of protecting powers. Though military training and organization continued, the people proved unable to defend the frontiers, and the land became more than ever the 'dancing-ground of Ares'. Though enrolled for a short time in the Aetolian League (about 245 BC) Boeotia was generally loyal to, and supported its later kings against Rome. Rome dissolved the league, but it was revived under, and merged with the other central Greek federations in the synod.
The death-blow to the country's prosperity was dealt by the devastations during the. Middle Ages and later [ ]. Ancient theatre of. In 1880–86, 's excavations at (H. Schliemann, Orchomenos, Leipzig 1881) revealed the tholos tomb he called the 'Tomb of ', a monument that equalled the 'Tomb of Atreus' at itself. De Ridder excavated the temple of and some burials in the Roman necropolis. In 1903–05, a Bavarian archaeological mission under and conducted successful excavations at the site.
Research continued in 1970–73 by the Archaeological Service under, uncovering the Mycenaean palace, a prehistoric cemetery, the ancient, and other structures. Pejorative term [ ] The Boeotian people, although they included great men like,,, and, were portrayed as proverbially dull by the Athenians (cf. Boeotian ears incapable of appreciating music or poetry and Hog-Boeotians,.310). Probably for this reason, Boeotia came to be proverbial for the stupidity of its inhabitants (OED).
Administration [ ]. Boeotia was created as a in 1836 (: Διοίκησις Βοιωτίας), again in 1899 ( Νομός Βοιωτίας) and again in 1943; in all cases it was split from. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Boeotia was created out of the former prefecture Boeotia. The prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below. New municipality Old municipalities & communities Seat Aliartos Distomo Livadeia Orchomenus Schimatari ( Thiva) Thebes Provinces [ ] The were: • - • - () Economy [ ] Boeotia is the home of the third largest factory in Europe, built by, a member of..Also, some of the biggest companies in Greece and Europe have factories in this place.
For example, and have factories in,Boeotia. Transport [ ] • /, SE, E, NE •, S, E, Cen., W, NW •, W, SW •, E •, W Natives of Boeotia [ ] • • • • • • (traditionally location of his death) • • • • • See also [ ] • • • • • • • References [ ].